4/27/07 Lydian language, translation showing conjugation and declension patterns and vocabulary.



The Lydian language

Translation of Lydian scripts (continued)

 by Mel Copeland
(Based on a related work, Etruscan Phrases,
first published in 1981)


Click here for a spreadsheet of the words, Lydian Glossary.xls.

 Script F – Lydian text from necropolis – This appears to be a song of Artimus, the constellation of the Cow, Dis (Pluto) and possibly Rubigo, the Latin god of mildew.

F1 – USTvM RUFA AESARIS TROS US VAR (8AR) FAE ASTR KOU [Translation: Burnt, dry (L. uro, urere, ussi, ustum, to burn, dry up) red, rudy (L. rufus-a-um; Robigo, Rub, god of mildew?) Aesaris of Troy? (L. Tros) the mouth (L. os-oris) I change (L. vario) you make (It. fare, 2nd fai) the star (L. astrum-i, star, constellation) Kou (IE *gwu, bull)]

F9 – FAN SAS FIKS ARVU KASA RUE KMS IS KOS [Translation: .. .. village (L. vicus-i) the shape, shaped (L. (fingo-fingere, fixi) ploughed (L. arvus-a-um) house (L. casa-ae) of the King (Fr. roi) KMS his (L. is) of Cos (island near Lydia, Cos)]

F18 – ASIS TIUAE SAFS FRATAU ARS SANSR SKAS NO [Translation: to Asians of the divine (L. dius-a-um) you hurt (L. saucio-are) Fratau the skill, method, arts (L. ars-tis) to consecrate, sanctify (L. sancio, sancire); you know (L. scio, scire) to swim (L. no, nare, navi)

F26 – EKS (E from line F18) VUTA (BUTA) UKS ATR COLU TAVA (TA8A) AU VA (8A) BAUKOL [Translation: from, out of (L. e, ex) he vows (L. voveo, vovere) he harrows, plows (L. occo-are) of the dark (L. ater, atra) to cultivate, inhabit, he wastes away (L. tabeo-ere) Oh! he goes (It. andare; 3rd person, va) ; alternatively, I change (L. vario-are) of the staff, walking stick (L. baculum-i, or baculus-i)]

F35 – AF KASI TAM SU FUE MAS FARU E TA US BATOS (8ATOS) [Translation: hail! or farewell! (L. aveo) or alternatively, I long for, desire (L. aveo-ere) the houses (L. casa-ae) so far as (L. tam) himself, herself, oneself (reflexive pronoun, L. se, sese; It. si; Fr. se) one flees? (Fr. fuir, 1st, 3rd pers., fuie; L. fugo-are) the mass (L. massa-ae) I will make? (It. fare, fut. faro) and (L. et) you (L. ta) the mouth of Batos?]

F46 – KOT AS KATTU EKS AEK VISA (8ISA) EISA AU ALUM SOE [Translation: the grindstone, stone (cos, cotis) of the whole (L. as, assis) of Cato? from, out of (L. e, ex) Aek (name?) he, she looks at, look into (L. viso, visere) Eisa oh! (L. au) we nourish (L. alo, alere) you join together (L. suo, suere)]

F57 – SARIS TROS USR KAS TUS KATRU ALIS SU IOS [Translation: Saris, name? or Macedonian pike (L. sarisa-ae) of Troy (L. Tros, Trois; Troia-ae, adj. Trous, Troius, Troicus, Troianus-a-um; Tros, Trois; Troas-ados) a hater (L. osor-oris) the cause? (L. causa-ae) thy fort, castle (L. castrum-i; Etruscan KATRV) winged (L. ales-altis) oneself (L se, sese, reflex. pron.) Ios (Ios, name?)]

F66 – E ATRO SIS TAUMUAE TIS LAV TANA LATRO KL [Translation: and (L. et) of the death, dark (L. ater, atra, atrum) you wish the homes (L. domus-us) of Dis (L. Dis, Pluto, Hades) I wash (L. lavo, lavare) the Greek (L. Danai-orum) the hired servant, mercenary soldier (L. latro-onis)]

F75 – (KL from line F66)S VARE AK ARTIMUU EAS KATR LAU ASTR KOU [Translation: the class (L. classis-is, a group, division, class) you change (L. vario) and, and also, and indeed (L. atque, ac) of Artimus Eas (name, see E-3) of the castle (L. castrum-i) I praise, praise (L. laudo-are; laus, laudis) of the star, constellation (L. astrum-i, star, constellation) of the cow IE *gwu, bull)]

F84 – BAKIS (8AKIS) UST IN ALAE ALU AK SA AKMU IS KOU [Translation: Baccus (L. Bacchus-i) she burnt, dried up (L. uro, urere, ussi) in (L. in) another (L. alius-a-ud) I nourished? (L. alo, alere, alui) also (L. aatque, ac) herself (L. se, sese) army corps (L. agema-atis, corps in the Macedonian army) she (L. is) the cow (IE*gwou, a bull]

F94 – FANS AK TVS SAS IV RO Lu TIS 8AKOR VIE KATR VN [Translation: Fans? and indeed (L. atque, ac) your (L. tuus-a-um) Sas? there, at that place (L. ibi) I bedewed, moistened (L. roro-are) there (la) of Dis (L. Dis, Pluto, Hades) to wander (L. vagor-ari) the way, road (L. via-ae) of the castle (L. castrum-i) one
(L. unus-a-um)]

F107 – VUKvM (8VKvM) RUFA AU VAKuMU (8AKuMU) ATAS FIS SIS FA ARS NIE KANT ROE [Translation: We call (L. voco-are) red, ruddy
(L. rufus-a-um; Robigo, Rub, god of mildew?) Oh! (L. au) let us make void (L. vacuo-are) Hades (L. Pluto-onis; Gr. Ades; Etr. ATIA) .. he makes (It. fare, 3rd pers. fa) the skill, method, arts (L. ars-tis) lest (L. ne) or alternatively indeed, truly (L. ne, nae) of the song (L. cantio-onis) you bedew? (L. roro-are)

(End of Text)

Lydian script G – This is an interesting text that seems to refer to Cyrus the Great and Sifra a man of Artimus

G-1 – USIM RUES VAREINS (8AREINS) BAKiS IRIS MUIMNAS FIKS [Translation: of the burnt, dry (L. uro, urere, ussi, ustum, to burn, dry up) the kings (Fr. roi, rois; L. rex, regis they change (L. vario-are) of Bacchus Iris, messenger of the gods, (L. Iris-ridis) of the ramparts, castle (L. moenia-ium) the shape, shaped (L. (fingo-fingere, fixi)]

G-8 EU MAS UBAE VAUN (8AFN) IRIS AMIES VARE (8ARE) ITU ASTR KOU [Translation: Well done! (L. eu!) Ubae, a German people? (L. Ubii-orum) the mass (L. massa-ae) or alternatively, male, vigorous (L. mas, maris) Ubae they bear, carry (L. veho, vehere, 3rd. pers. pl. vehunt) of Iris, messenger of the gods (L. Iris-ridis) the friends (L. amicus, m., amica, f.; Fr. ami, amie; It. amico, amica) you change (L. vario-are) to go (L. ito-are) of the constellation, star (L. astrum-I) of the cow, bull (IE*gwou, a bull)]

G18 – MU A TALAE MUIMNaS AUIE AEFIS FIE KAS SIReS [Translation: me, myself (L. mei, mihi, me, me) ; alternatively I move (L. moveo-movere) to, at (L. a) the bar, stake? (L. talea-ae) of the ramparts, castle (L. moenia-ium) of Auie (name?) of eternity (L. aevis-i) you come into existence (L. fio, fieri) of the cause (L. causa-ae) of Sirius, the dog star (L. Sirius-i) or alternatively, Cyrus king of Persia]

G27 – BAKiS (8AKiS
) VARE (8ARE) UT AKAN KATU SI LANAE VINTAS (8INTAS) INAS [Translation: Bacchus (L. Bacchus-i) you change (L. vario-are) as (L. ut or uti) they move, drive (L ago, agere, agant) Cato (L. Cato-onis) if, supposing (L. si) the wool (L. lana-ae) of the Vintas, place? you begin (L. ineo-ire)]

G36 – NATIE A MUIMNaS ISTS VARU (8ARU) II TU AKMuS A UIE [Translation: you were born (L. nasco, nasci, natae) to (L. a) the ramparts, castle (L. moenia-ium) of yours (L. iste, ista, istud) to change (L. vario-are) II you (L. tu) of the corps (L agema-atis) to (L. a) euoe (L.euoe, shout of the Bacchants)]

G46 – AEFIS (AE from line G36) FIE KAS SIFuS KOTIT KI EA UMEAS IN AU AU [Translation: to eternity (L. aevus-i) you come into existence (L fio, fieri) of the cause (L. causa-ae) of Sifus, name? daily (L. quotidie, cotid-) who, which (L. qui) she, he is (L. eat) Umeas, name in (L. in) Oh! Oh! (L. au)]

G57 – FASTuS UN KAS NITUS IKE ITE ATROS KAS TU SIS [Translation: keeping holiday, festive (L. festus-a-um) one(L. unus-a-um) of the cause (L. causa-ae) you shined (L. niteo-ere) of Ike, name? you go (L. ito-are) of death the cause (L. causa-ae) you (L. tu) you want (L. sis) ]

G67 – KIN TU MUIMNAS SAUS (SAFS) SVARE (S8ARE) ITAS AKMuSAE [Translation: the kin, clan (L. gens, gentis) of you of the ramparts, castle (L. moenia-ium) you wound, hurt (L. saucio-are) you shoot (It. sparare) the departure, going, movement (L. itus-us) corps, army (L. agema-atis)]

G74 – SIFRA UMIS ARTIMU Lu KAS SIRiS KAF UK BAKI Lu LIS [Translation: Sifra, name? men (L. homo-onis; It. Uomo; Fr. Homme) of Artimus there (Lu) of the cause (L. causa-ae) of (L. Sirius-i) or alternatively, Cyrus king of Persia you I am on my guard (L. caveo, cavere) UK? Bacchusi (L. Bacchus-i) there (Lu) of the law, legal proceeding (L. lis, litis) ]

G85 – ARM SAK TIE A II TU MUIMNaS IST SVARU (S8ARU) AKMuS [Translation: the arms (L. arma-orum) of the sack (L. sac) of the day (L. dies-ie; Etr. tie, ties) to (L. a) II of you of the ramparts, castle (L. moenia-ium) that of yours (L. iste, ista, istud) to shoot (It. sparare) the corps, army (L. agema-atis)]

G95 – IRE US SIFRA UMIS ARTIMU Lu KAS SIRuS AKAE [Translation: the wrath (L. ira-ae) of the mouth (L. os-oris) of Sifra, name? man (L. homo-onis; It. Uomo; Fr. Homme) of Artimus there (Lu) cause? (L. causa-ae) Sirius, the dog star? (L. Sirius-i); king, Cyrus? of the Achaemenid dynasty? ]

G104 – SIFRA UMIS ARTIMU Lu AS VAS (8AS) KI TRAU TIRAU [Translation: Sifra, name? man (L. homo-onis; It. Uomo; Fr. Homme) of Artimus there (Lu) the whole (L. as-asgis) bail, surety (L. vas) which (L. qui) I drew, pulled (L. traho, trahere, trahor) frightful (L. dirus-a-um)? ]

G111 – TATTULA TAKM SAS AS VAS (8AS) UK BINUS (BINFS) SVARE (S8ARE) ITIK [Translation: Daedala, name? (L. Daedalus- i) or alternatively, skillful (L. daedalus -a-um) I am silent about (L. taceo-ere, taceam) sas (unknown word) the whole (L. as, assis) the surety, bail (L. vas) I harro (L. occo-are) the vineyard? (L vinea-ae) you shoot (It. sparare) therefore (L. ataque)]

G120 – ASTR KOS MUIM LU NAKU KOU BAKA (8AKA) TU (TF) AMIE AK TUE [Translation: star, constellation (L. astrum-I) of island, Cos of Muim, name? there (lu) I am born, to be born (L. nascor-i) of the cow, bull (IE*gwou, a bull) of Bacchus of you (L. tu) the friend (L. amicus, amica) and indeed (L. atque, ac) you regard, watch over (L. tueo-ere)]

G133 – AUIEAE TASOE AKMUAI INANT [Translation: Auie-ae, name? of the Bacchic rout, band of revellers (L. thiasus-i) to the corps, army (L. agema-atis) they empty, void (L. inanio-ire) or alternativley begin (L. ineo-ire)? or sail, swim (L. inno-nare)]

(end of text)

Script H

H-1 – US ASINAS MANU (MANF) LIS ALU LIS AKMUT TIS VIN (8IN) SUIBIE (SUI8IE) of Dis, god of Hades (L. Dis, Etruscan, TIS) the [Translation: the mouth (L. os-oris) of Asinas the hand (L. manus-i) of the legal proceeding, law (L. lis, litis) to nourish, to support (L. alo, alere) the legal proceeding, law (L. lis, litis) you wish (L. vin, visne) of the Suebi (Suevi)-orum, Germanic tribe]

H11 – VOK US SAS AN LOLAS VOK [Translation: I summon, call (L. voco-are) the mouth (L. os-oris) sas (unknown word) whether (L. an) Lolas, name? I summon, call (L. voco-are)]

H17 –USU KARO LU 8AK MISAN SAS [Translation: burn, to dry up, to disturb (L. uro, urere) the flesh (L. caro-carnis) there (lu) I celebrate in the festival of Bacchus, revel (L. bacchor-ari) they pity (L. misereo-ere) or alternatively, they send (L. mitto-mittere) sas (unknown word)]

H23 – KOS AEK MARIUE AKIN (IN from line H27) [Translation: of the island, Cos, Aek, name? Mariue, name? they drive, move (L. ago-agere)

[Translation: the Suebi (Suevi)-orum, Germanic tribe]

H28 – US UANAS MANU LIS [Translation: the mouth (L. os-oris) of Euans, a name of Bacchus the hand (L. manus-i) of the law, legal proceeding (L. lis, litis)]

H32 – ALU LIS AKMUT [Translation: I nourish, support (L. alo, alere) the law, legal proceeding (L. lis, litis) of the corps, army (L. agema-atis)]

H34 – TIS VIN (8IN) SUIBIE (SUI8IE) [Translation: the god Dis, god of Hades (L. Dis, Etruscan, TIS) you wish (L. volo-are)? the Suebi (Suevi)-orum, Germanic tribe]

H37 8AK MUTTU E ANS [Translation: I revel (L. bacchor-I, to rage, revel) mutually (L. mutuus-a-um) and (L. et) the years (L. annus-i; Fr. an) or alternatively, the occassion (L. ansa-ae)]

H41 ARTIMU KUK BATINT [Translation: to Artimus I collect, bring together (L. cogo, cogere) they beat, battle (L. battuo-ere)]

(end text)

Script I, Lydian stele from Sardis, # 272, "unknown language." (From "Sculpture from Sardis: The finds through 1975, George M. A. Hanemann and Nancy H. Ramage, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1978)

I-1 MEM [Translatin: mother (It. mamma)? the self, same (Fr. même)]
I-2 TA AFA [Translation: you (L. tuus, vester; Fr. ta, thy, votre, your) or alternatively, he, she carries, bears away (L. aveho-vehere) or alternatively, grandmother (L. avia-ae)
Ki [Translation: the writing tabulet (L. tabula-ae) who, which, what, that, wherefore, whereby (L. qui, quae, quod; It. chi; Fr. qui)]
I-6 THVTI PHIA or THIA [Translation: total, entire (L. tutus-a-um; totius, toti; It. totale, tutto; Fr. tout; Welsh, tuath) of Phia]
I-8 IVEN APSON L_ [Translation: Io (L. Io, Ion-us [onis], an Argive girl, loved by Jupiter and changed into a cow; adj. Ionius-a-um, Ionian, of the sea between Italy and Greece, across which Io swam) they fit, adjust, make ready (L. apto-are) there (Fr. le, la)]
I-9 EN ANCH TEAU [Translation: in, towards, within (L. in) or alternatively, behold! (L. en) I press tightly, make anxious (L. ango-are) or alternatively, Ancus (L. Ancus-i, fourth king of Rome) of god (L. deus, divus, di, divi, dea, diva; It. dio, dia; Fr. dieu, dieux, deese)
I-12 NE E ATOCAS [Translation: no, not (L. non; It. no; Fr. Non; Baltic-Sudovian, ne, ni) from, out of from, after (L. e, ex) Atocas, name]


1) Mythological accounts are based upon Edward Tripp's "The Meridian Handbook of Classical Mythology, NY, 1970.


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