Indo-European Table 1, Etruscan Vocabulary, Etruscan Phrases with Indo-European cognates

04.10.2022 Etruscan Vocabulary, Etruscan Phrases Etruscan etymological relationships to other Indo-European languages; Proto-Indo-Europea. (PIE):



Indo-European Table 1, Part 2

 by Mel Copeland

(from a work published in 1981)

This table has Indo-European, Akkadian, Hurrian, Georgian (Kartlevian), Latvian (Baltic) and Finnish (Uralic) selections. We have colored words that may be related among the various languages/families. The coloring provides an unusual view of the mix and concordance of the cited languages.

Table 1, Section 1A: Indo-European words as they relate to Etruscan.  Note: colors indicate possible relationship among words.


Avestan, Persian, Georgian, Hurrian, Akkadian

Slavic, Baltic, Romanian,

Greek, Armenian, Albanian, Basque






kas, api, that, although, yad, that, since, kas. ka, kat/kim, who, what? who what, someone, anyone,

ka, kahe, who, yim, who, aya [aem] (f), this, cim?, interr. pron. who, what, which, ci ta[-], cish [ci], cm [ci], what? who? which? (indef. pron.), anyone, someone, whoever, whatever, a [-], at, who, which, that, conj. when ta [-], this, that, he, she, it (Avestan)

kyکی who, when, whom, ke, که,  that, as, what, which, who, whom, whether, kudom, کدام, which, any, če, چه, what?,  ce kasiچه چیزی, what,  ke či,  چی what, nce, آنچه what (Persian)

ვინ, vin, who,
რა, ra, what, რომელიც, romelits, which, რომ, rom, that,  (Georgian)

inv(-), pron, dem., that (Urartian)
ave-, abe-, ave-, ab-i ~ av-i, who, au-nni, av-, #aw, what, andi, andu,  -lla, -l, -nna, -n, anv-, that (Hurrian)

minu, pron. interr., who?, mija, who?, jau, which, aba, abu, what, mūnu, interr., what?, all, that, the other, ag, agaa, agaja, agai, ann, that, this, ammiu, m., ammīt, f., that, those, āt, pron. fem. s., she of, that of, which, t, they of, those of, which  (Akkadian)

chto, who, што, to, what, that, які, jaki, which (Belarussian)

chto, pron. who;
cyj, pron. whose sto, pn. what (Belarus)
tko, who,
to, what, koji, which, da, that, (Croatian)

kto, who, co, what, ktry, which, że, that (Polish)
ka, what (Baltic
kur, who,
kas, which, what, ka, that (Latvian)
kas, who, , what, which, tai, that (Lithuanian)
care, who, which, what, whichever, ce, what, acea, that (Romanian)
kuka, who, ett, that, mit, what, joka, which (Finnish-Uralic)

ο οποίος, o opios, who, οι οποίες, oi opoes, which. τι, ti, what, ότι, ti, that (Greek)
ով, ov, who, որը, vory, which, ինչ, inch, what, որ, vor, that (Armenian)
kush, who, which far, what, q, that, kujt, whom, quod, that, which, (Albanian)

nor, who, nork, who?, bertan, zein, which, zer, what, hori, that  (Basque)

qui, who, which quae, any, some, who, which, what,  quod, that, which, quid est, what


a, who, which, cad, what, sin, that (Irish)
c, who, d, what, a tha, which, 
sin, that (Scott)
pwy, sawl,
a, who, what,
beth, what, pa, a, which, sydd, which, a, hwnnw (honno) that;  hwn (hon), this; (Welsh)
chi, who, che cosa, what, quale, which,  che, who, what, which, quello, quella, that, cio, that, (Italian)
qui, who, lequel, laquelle, which, quel, quelle, what,
ce, cette, that (French)

Kōṇa, who,
શું, Śuṁ, what, which, કે, , that (Gujarati)
kim, who, ne, what, whatsoever,
hangisi, which, whichever, o, ki, that (Turkish)

ДДСҰ, DDSU, who, kim, who, не, ne, what, қайсысы, qaysısı, which, қай, qay, which, сол, sol, pron. that, бұл, bol, that (Kazakh)
JSSV, who, kim, who, nima, what, whichever, qaysi, which, bu, that, u/o'sha, that, he/she (Uzbek)
, who, which, that, чӣ, он, on, pron. he, that, чӣ, , what (Tajik)
эмне, emne, what, кайсы, kaysı, which, ошол, oşol, that (Kyrgyz)         

ДЭМБ, DEMB, who, хэн, khen, pron. who, юу, yuu, what, аль, alis, which, тэр, ter, that (Mongolian)
Shu, who, whose, someone,
什麼, Shnme, what, 孰, Sh, what, 哪, , which, where, that, 哪個, Nǎge, which (Traditional Chinese)

kuse, kus (pron. inter.)  [B kuse], who?, what?