Indo-European Table 1, Etruscan Phrases, with Indo-European cognates

04.29.2022 Etruscan Phrases Etruscan etymological relationships to other Indo-European languages;


Indo-European Table 1, Part 3

by Mel Copeland

(from a work published in 1981)

This table has Indo-European, Hurrian, Georgian (Kartlevian), Latvian (Baltic), Finnish (Uralic), Akkadian selections. We have colored words that may be related among the various languages/families. The coloring provides an unusual view of the mix of the cited languages.

Table 1, Section 1A.1: Indo-European words as they relate to Etruscan. Notes: *Armenian W = West Armenian; E = East Armenian.


Avestan, Persian, Georgian, Hurrian, Akkadian

Slavic, Baltic, Romanian,

Greek, Albanian, Armenian, Basque




āsīdidantamo, bhūtam, confusion, disorder


ub, آشوب chaos, anarchy, trouble, revolt (Persian)

kaosi, chaos (Georgian)

āru, vanity,
nothingness, lies, falsehoods, flatus, emptiness, emanation, breath, air, cardinal point, wind, nen, confused, disturbed, dulḫānu, e, itu, confusion, aītu, confusion, battle, blurring of vision(Akkadian)
хаос, chaos, chaos (Belarusian)
haos, chaos (Croatian)

Chaos, Chaos (Polish)
haoss, chaos (Latvian)
haos, chaos (Romanian)
kaaos, chaos (Finnish-Uralic)

χάος, chos, Chaos (Greek)
kaos, chaos (Armenian)
kaos, chaos (Albanian)

kaosa, chaos (Basque)

Chaos, chaos
anord, chaos (Irish)
chaos, chaos (Scott)
anhrefn, chaos (Welsh)
caos, chaos (Italian)
chaos, chaos (French)

અંધાધૂંધી, Andhādhūndhī, chaos (Gujarati)

karışıklık, confusion, mess, chaos, kaos, chaos, pie (Turkish)
bılıq, chaos, fish,
хаос, xaos, chaos (Kazakh)

tartibsizlik, chaos, confusion, disorder (Uzbek)
ʙetartiʙī, chaos, disturbance, turmoil (Tajik)

башаламандык, başalamandık, chaos (Kyrgyz)

zambaraagidel, chaos (Mongolian)

混 亂, Hǔnlun, chaos (Traditional Chinese)

sanabili, void, emptiness, UL kuitki, nothing, dannatta-, empty, desert (Hittite)
the empty void, Chaos [<Gk. khaos, unformed matter],

CEOS (CEVS), Script Z657

CHYUS (↓YFS), J17-1
x x x x Caius (Gaius) x Caius (Gaius), common Roman name
CHAES, (AES) Script J38-6







Chaina, place name, Chiana Valley
CHAINA (↓AINA), Script AB-6;

x x x Χαλκάς, Chalks Χαλκάς x Calchas, seer who prophesied for Agamemnon against Troy
x x x x x x Chaneri, name
CHANERI (↓ANERI) Script BS-17, VP14
x x x Χάαρον, Charon Charon-ontis x Charon, ferryman of Hades
CHARON (↓ARVN), Script, BC-1, VA-2
x x x x x x Chasun, name
CHASUN (↓ASFN) Script J35-9
kas, who, ya-, who, which, what, whatever, that

- who? what? which? anyone, someone, whoever, whatever, kem, whom,
ka, kahe, who, kva, where, which, how, cm, who? what? which? (indef. pron.) anyone, someone, whoever, whatever,  a[-] (rel. pron.) who, which, at [ya] who, which, that, (conj.) when; as
atha [-] (conj.) as; when; that; than; atha ... atha, either - or ... athaca (conj.)

asha [ata], ash-> this, that (Avestan)

ky کی,who,

če, چه what, ke, که as, which, who, whom, what, what, that, kudom, کدام which, un, اون that, that thing (Persian)

ვინ, vin, who, რომელიც, romelits, which, რა, ra, what, რომ, rom, that,  (Georgian)

au-nni, what, anv-, man-, man-e, -lla, -l, -ne, -nna, -n, that, īa/e-, ije-, ija- inna-, innu- what, andi, andu- annam, annami, this,  abe-, ave-, afe-, who (Hurrian)

mija, minu, who?, aj, j, ajītu, who, which, what,  jau, which, a, that, which, that of, of, (Akkadian)

vхто, chto, who, які, jaki, which, што, to, that, what (Belarusian)
chto,  who; cyj, pron. whose; to, pron., what, heta, pron., it,
that; hety, pron. = toj, this, that (Belarus)

tko, who, koji, which, da, that, to, what (Croatian)

kto, who, ktry, which (Polish)
kur, who, kas, which, what, ka, that (Latvian)

, who, which, ce, what
, that, which, acea, that, CEŞTI, this, these, ci, but, or (Romanian)
kuka, who, mit, what, joka, which, ett, that

ο οποίος,  o opoos, who, which, ποιόν, opoion, whom, what, ποιός, pois, pron., who, what, which,  τι, ti, pron., what, ότι, ti, that (Greek)
ով, ov, who, ինչ,
inch, what, որը, vory, which, որ, vor, that (Armenian)
cilin, k, kujt, whom, kush, who,  i cili,  q, that, which, cilin, whom; cfar, what, prvec se, except that (Albanian)

nor, pron., who, bertan, zain, which, zer, what, hura, that (Basque)

quis, who? what, which? anyone, anybody, anything, how much, how many, quid, qui, quae, quod, who; qui, which, what, in what manner? how?, qua, by which way, where, whereby, as far as, some, quo, where? to what place? in order that; because, whereby, quae, quod, the fact that, whereas, because, why, on which account, since, as far as, and, but now...
qui, quae or quod, rel. pron. that,

hic, haec, hoc, this, these
a, who, which, cad, what, sin, that (Irish)
c, who, d, which, what, sin, that (Scott)
pwy, who, sydd, which, hynny, that, beth, what (Welsh)
chi, who, quale, which, che cosa, what, quella, that,
questo, this (Italian)
qui, who, some, lequel, which, quelle, what, cette, that (French)

Kōṇa, who, જે, Jē, adj., which, that, કયું, Kayuṁ, pron, which, what (Gujarati)

DS, who, kimi, pron., who, some, whom, ne, what, hangi, which, what, o, ki, conj., pron., that, which (Turkish)
kim, who, қай, qay,
қайсы, qaysı, adj., pron., which, сол, sol, that, left (Kazakh)
, pron., who, conj., that, чӣ, , what, он, on, pron., that, he (Tajik)
ким, kim, whom, кайсы, kaysı, which, эмне, emne, what, деп, dep, that (Kyrgyz)

хэн, khen, who, юу вэ, yuu ve, what, хэн нө, khen n, adj., pron., which, тэр, ter, pron. that, it, he, тийм хол, tiim khol, adj., that (Mongolian)
Sh, pron., who, what, 哪一個, Nǎ yīg, pron., which, 何, H, adj., which, what, 那, N, pron., that, 那個, Ng, that one, 該, Gāi, conj., that (Traditional Chinese)
kus (pron.inter.)  [B kuse], who, what,
kus-ne who, which, (pron.rel.)  (Tocharian)

kui, who, what (Palaic)
ki, who, what (Lydian)
ti+k, who, which (Lycian)