Indo-European Table 1, Etruscan Vocabulary with Indo-European cognates
8.11.2021 Etruscan etymological relationships to other Indo-European languages; Proto-Indo-European (PIE): 


Indo-European Table 1, Part 5 (of 11 Parts)

 by Mel Copeland

(from a work published in 1981)

This table has Indo-European, Hurrian, Georgian (Kartlevian), Latvian (Baltic) and Finnish (Uralic) and Akkadian selections. We have colored words that may be related among the various languages/families. The coloring provides an unusual view of the mix of the cited languages. A Concordance with Akkadian is included in our Copeland-English-Akkadian Dictionary.


 by Mel Copeland

(from a work published in 1981)

Table 1, Section 1B: Indo-European words as they relate to Etruscan. Notes: *Armenian W = West Armenian; E = East Armenian.


Avestan, Persian, Georgian, Hurrian, Akkadian

Slavic, Baltic, Romanian,

Greek, Armenian, Albanian, Basque







  nh, آنها them,

in, ایشان they  (Persian)

mat, them, ისინი, isini, they (Georgian)

unu, them, for them,
as for them, those, the aforementioned, masc. pl., aunu, iini (f.), iunu, uni, unu, they, ina, ināti, they, those, the aforementioned, t, they of, those of, which

іх, ich, them, яны, jany, they (Belarusian)
ih, them, oni, they (Croatian)
ich, im, je, them, one, they, do nich, to them (Polish)
viņiem, them,
viņi, they
le, lor, them, ei, they
niit, them, ne, they

τους, tous, them, their, αυτών των, aftn ton, of these, δικός τους, diks tous, theirs, τους, tous, them, their, αυτοί, aftoi, they (Greek)
nrants, them, նրանք, nrank, they (Armenian)
ata, they, them, ato, they, them, those,
u, to them


horietako, them, haiek, them, those, they (Basque)

ille, illa, ilud, ei, eae, they,  illi, they, those, these, ea, that, this, they, she,  illae, inlae, inli, ollae, they those, olli, they, those, these,  illis, them, eorum, their,

eis, iis, 3rd Pers. Pl. Dat. them,

les, legis, f., contract, covenant, agreement, law
iad, them, siad, they (Irish)
iad, them, iad, they (Scott)
nhw, them, they (Welsh)
them, esse, essi, they (Italian)
leur, them, elles, ils, they (French)

-us, them, sumēs, -smas, -e, they (Hittite)

them [<ON theim, and OE  them], they [<ON their]


{5-1 deleted}

le (Le), Script Z572, Z638, Z1334, Z1853, K67, Q303, AO-2, K37, K67

les, Script
R521, G21, K36,

li, Script TC-1


sh [ta]  for him, his (Avestan)
u, vey,
n, he, she; n, n ciz, it; nn, isn, nh, they; isnr, be
isn, be nh,
them, (Persian)
მას, ეს,
mas, to him, it, (Georgian)

'-ni (sing.), -na (plur.), him (Urartian)

яму, jamu to him, (Belarusian)
njemu, to him (Croatian)
ono, to, do niego, to him (Polish)
viņam, to him (Latvian)
LUI, to him, LU to him
(modern & old Romanian)
hnelle, to him (Finnish-Uralic)

σε αυτόν, se aftn, to him (Greek)
nran, to him (Armenian)
pr t, to him,

ai, ajo, at, ky, kjo (Albanian)

berari, to him (Basque)

hic, haec, hoc; is, ea, id, ille, illa, illud

d, to him (Irish)
dha, to him (Scott)
iddo fe, to him (Welsh)
a lui, to him (Italian)
lui, to him (French)

-()ṃ, him, her, it (Tocharian)

()ṃ, him, her, it (Lycian)

-si-, -a-, -an, him, her it, se, for him, for it, (Hittite)

it? to him [<OE], it?


lo (Lv), Script N311, Q152, Q202, Q224, R554, K113, PB-2

hvalati, to totter, kṣayaḥ, to fall, ruin, decay, hrāsaḥ, to decline, decrease

tivtiv, تلوتلو totter, tiv tiv kardan,  تلو تلو خوردن to totter, ivi kardan, رد کردن reject, throw down, ofthɒːˈdn, افتادن to fall, drop, pas raftan, پس رفتن to decline, recede (Persian)

განადგურება, ganadgureba, to totter, დაცემა, datsema, to fall, შემცირება,
shemtsireba, to decline, იმედგაცრუება, imedgatsrueba, let down, (Georgian)

kud-, to fell, kut-, kud-, to fall, (Hurrian)

maqātu, to fall down, to fall, to fall to the ground, into a pit, to fall upon something, to fall in battle, to suffer a downfall, afflict, etc. (Akkadian)
пахіснуцца, pachisnucca, to totter,
padać, to fall, зніжацца, zniacca, to delcine (Belarusian)
pustiti, to totter, teturati, stagger, totter, to barge, pasti, to fall, odbiti, to decline, spustiti, let down
nolaidīt, to totter, krist, to fall, atteikt, to decline, nolaisties, to let down (Latvian)

a totter, to totter,
a cădea, to fall, LEPĂDA, to let something fall, let down, clătina, to shake, stagger, wobble, totter, sway, rock, diminua, to decline, diminish, decrease (Romanian)
nnty, to totter,  tottua, to totter, pudota, to fall, kieltyty, to decline, (Finnish-Uralic)
να γεμίσει, na gemsei, to totter, να πέσω, na pso, to fall, να μειωθεί, na meiothe, to decline (Greek)
saytakel, to totter, ընկնել, ynknel, to fall, հրաժարվելու համար,
hrazharvelu hamar, to decline (Armenian)
pr t lkundur, to totter, t bjer, to fall, decline, l n balt, let down (Albanian)

desbideratzeko, astindu, to totter, erori, to fall, gainbehera, to decline (Basque)
labo-are, to totter, begin to fall, labor, labi, lapsus, to decline,  fall down,
cado-ere, cecidi, casum, to fall, to droop, die, be killed, diminish, etc.

iomln, to totter, decline, titim, to fall (Irish)
iomlan, to totter, cronadh, decline,
tuiteam, to fall (Scott)
cyfansawdd, to totter, dirywiad, decline,
i syrthio, to fall (Welsh)
barcollare, to totter, cadere, to fall, diminuire, to decline,
decrease,declinare, to decline, wane (Italian)
chanceler, to totter, tomber, to fall, diminuer, to decline, dcliner, to decline, wane (French)

ટોલ કરવા માટે, Ṭōla karavā māṭē, to totter, પડવૂ, Paḍavū, to fall, નીચું પડવું, Nīcuṁ paḍavuṁ, to decline, fall down (Gujarati)
sendelemek, to totter, stagger, dşmek, to fall, azalmak, to decline, decrease (Turkish)

толқу, tolqw, to totter, құлау, qulaw, to fall, құлдырау, quldıraw, to decline  (Kazakh)
buzmoq, to totter, yiqilish, to fall, pasaymoq, to  decline, drop (Uzbek)
ларзидан, larzidan, to totter, афтодан, aftodan, to fall, паст шудан, past şudan, to decline (Tajik)
олку-солку болуу, olku-solku boluu, to totter, жыгылуу, jıgıluu, to fall, төмөндөө, tmnd, to decline  (Kyrgyz)
ганхах, gankhakh, to totter, унах, unakh, to fall, буурах, buurakh, to decline, decrease (Mongolian)
蹣跚, Pnshān, to totter, stumble, 跌倒, Didǎo, to fall, 下降, Xijing, to decline, decrease (Traditional Chinese)

[B klāyā-], to fall down,  klālune, falling (Tocharian)

mauszi, mau/mu, mau/mu/maus, maus-, to fall, EGIR-pa maus-, to fall backward, kattan, to fall down, mumiadr, to fall, collapse, lag, to fall,  lak/lk, to knock out a tooth, to turn ones eyes and ears towards something, to train a vine, topple something, lak-, to fall, slant, to tilt, to submit, lilak, to fell, kappae, kapae, to diminish, reduce, tepnu, to diminish, tebnu, to diminish, despise (Hittite)