8/17/06 Etruscan Phrases showing Etruscan conjugation and declension patterns, vocabulary and translations;
Etruscan etymological relationships to other Indo-European languages; Proto-Indo-European (PIE); featuring Table 1,
Indo-European words as they relate to Etruscan words
Copyright © 1981-2006 Mel Copeland. All rights reserved.
Etruscan Phrases
by Mel Copeland
(from a work published in 1981)
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When one begins an investigation one does not know where it will lead. Of key importance to any investigation is the way the data are gathered and recorded; then the process by which the information is analyzed. With diligence the study may open new vistas and they too are important to the work. Bear with me, now, as we explore the fascinating, mysterious world of the Etruscans, their neighbors, ancestors, hopes, dreams and fears. I say, fears, since their writing includes fearsome depictions, as can be seen, for instance, in the Tomb of Orcus (who would want to be buried with such depictions around them?), which you may wish to view by clicking on the Etruscan_murals link below. To understand the Etruscans we step into their world about ~1,200 B.C. Although that date and the subsequent centuries are somewhat of a "Dark Age" to us, we can see in the light from the Etruscans and other Indo-European peoples, such as the Aryans of India who created the Rig Veda, the Danaäns of the Illiad, an attempt to reconcile their lives, their hopes and dreams, to that which is greater than them: the gods. What these ancient peoples, in those ancient times, were reconciling was then even ancient history to them. Also described in this work are the Celts, who have passed down a similar, though abbreviated, Indo-European tradition that continues with us till this day. They passed down to us the Táin Bó Cuailnge, also called The Tain. It is about a great battle between the two major chieftans of Ireland, concerning a cattle-raid by Queen Medb and King Ailill, of Connacht, with their allies, against the king of Ulster. The hero of the story is Cúchulainn, his name meaning "the hound of Chulainn." Though a giant of a man, still in his youth, he is obliged to watch the cattle that are about to be raided, because he killed the hound that normally watched the cattle. Obviously he is at the center of the battle that takes place and certain warriors that are killed in the battle leave their names to the places of Ireland where they were killed. It follows the same pattern of story-telling as the Illiad and the Hindu version of the "great battle" called the Mahabharata. An Anglo-Saxon, Danish version of the "great battle" is another wonderful story, Beowulf, that involves the hero, Beowulf, who destroys the monster Grendel, that lives underground, and feeds upon the warriors of a Danish palace. More ancient in the Indo-European tradition, perhaps, is the Rig Veda, which tells us of the god Indra (like the Greek god Zeus and Etruscan god Tinia) who destroys a dragon. In Greek mythology Zeus destroys the monster, whose legs were serpents, Typhöeus or Typhon. In Celtic mythology the name of this god who destroyed monsters or dragons is probably Cernunnos, who will be discussed more in this work. Typhöeus is a character, like many other Greek gods, remembered in Etruscan images. Knowing this we should be able to find in Tinia's ephitet a refrence to Typhöeus, or the Etruscan name of that character, if much different.

While there is no doubt that the Etruscan language, as shown on this site, is Indo-European and closely related to Latin, the work is not complete until other relationships are examined. We need to better understand what the Etruscan scripts say, and to do that, though we can read them, we need to be able to understand what we are reading. This is where an understanding of other like mythologies and languages is important and introduced in this work. For instance, in the "Tomb of the Lioness," in Tarquinia, a mural that can be viewed by clicking on the link below shows dancers and musicians on either side of an enormous vase or cauldron, and above them two lionesses. Actually, on the left appears to be a lioness, and on the right appears to be a leopardess. What mythology is being represented here? As will be seen in this work, the images from the Etruscan tombs are not just pretty images, though many have deteriorated; they tell a story. Our purpose ought to be to understand that story, to hopefully find at least a piece of the story in the extanct Etruscan scripts. We need to step beyond the efforts of the "historians" of the past.

Because so many of the Etruscan murals recall Greek mythology –some contain names that coincide with greek gods and godesses – we can presume that they adopted Greek themes to themselves, like the Latins. The Greek Zeus is the Latin Jupiter, for instance. We also know from the Aeneid of Vergil (born in Cisalpine Gaul, 70 B.C.) that the Lydian refugees with Aeneas were able to enlist the Etruscans (Tyrrhenians) to aid them in their war against the indigenous Latins at Rome. Mentioned in that tale is also the fact that nearby was a Greek colony. The Greeks did influence Etruscan works of art, justifying the title of the "Hellenic" period in Etruscan "history." I put the word, history, in quotes for a reason. What is known about the Etruscans is from archeological data and bits and pieces of testimonials from the Greeks and Latin historians. Here we shall attempt to put more legitimacy to the idea of an Etruscan history, one that at least is composed of words from their own hands – not others.

In this work there is beauty, since many of the Etruscan inscriptions are on murals or frescos painted in Etruscan tombs. The paintings are extraordinary art forms in themselves, but now they are also sources of new history about the Etruscans from the Etruscan point of view.

"Battle of the Greeks and Amazons" from a sarcophagus from Tarquinia, now in the Archeological Museum in Florence. There are some characters that are hard to read. See two alternative readings in Short_Scripts.html. The first alternative is: HVC CRAI: RVI: ASV ATI: TIFI CNEI: LAR RIAL Translation [ Hither is (L. huc) Crai the king (L. rex, regis; It. re, Fr. roi). Aso (Asius, a Trojan ally. Asius was the younger brother of Hecuba and son of Dymas, king of the Phryigian tribe who lived on the Sangarius River. He led that nation's forces in the Trojan War) of the Ati (sons of Atis). He carried away (L deveho -veheree -vexi -vectum) Cnei (Hecate): of the god (L. lar) royal (L. regalis)]

Hitherto all we have had as a source of information about the Etruscans was reports of them from Greek and Roman sources. Here we have a wonderful mural reflecting a battle between what appears to be the Greeks and Amazons. But could the battle have been between the Trojans and Amazons? And what do you suppose this painting of the Amazons says? Whom do you suppose the paintings in the tombs, upon sarcophagi and walls, were for? Were they made to impress tourists visiting Italy on the Etruscan painting styles and art forms? In truth, the tombs were sealed, not to be seen by any human being after the dead were laid to rest. Some tombs were used over and over, as family tombs – which is true of some early British cairns, but for the most part the dead were left in their tombs, as in Egypt, to enjoy with their gods the images of their new abode. So when you look at the murals, keep in mind that you are not supposed to be looking at them – from their creator's point of view. And to whom are the writings within the tombs written? Not to you. But since you are here, and can see them, it behooves us to attempt to understand what the Etruscans knew the gods could understand.

These tombs had lots of artifacts, rich in gold, in them. Because of the riches found within them in the late 19th century, there was a rush to break into them to get at the treasures. This, of course, happened in Egypt and, as we are beginning to learn now, in Thracian tombs, in what is now Bulgaria, some of which resemble Etruscan tombs.

Now we can read the scripts, though progress is slow, since all of the words in the various scripts must be reconciled into one standing vocabulary (See Indo-European Table 1 (Table 1) and our new Etruscan Glossary. The Etruscan Glossary contains over 1,600 words, most of which – as can be seen in Indo-European Table 1 – are close to Latin. The words conjugate and decline in a regular fashion, and consistent shifts between Etruscan and Latin, Italian and French can be observed. Most of the words in the scripts covered by this site are in the Etruscan Glossary / Table 1. Words that are not entered into the glossary include those that are in the Capua Tile, which has considerable damage, and areas of other scripts that have been damaged or are missing. What could not be read with confidence was not entered into the glossary. From the Etruscan_Glossary (the Excel format Etruscan_GlossaryA.xls is most current), we have prepared Etruscan_Grammar, showing rich conjugation and declension patterns. These patterns add further confimation in the identification of the Etruscan language as a tongue close to Latin, French and Italian. A more detailed Excel presentation of the Etruscan_Grammar is available via Etruscan_Grammar.xls.

The glossary and grammar provide a better view of the Etruscan grammatical patterns and phonetic styles than previously seen through Table 1. When better copies of texts that are difficult to read are obtained, Table 1 and the Etruscan Glossary will be updated.

The Etruscan language is, as confirmed herein, Indo-European. A recent study published by a professor at Stanford University claims that the Etruscans were not Indo-Europeans. The article based its conclusions on DNA analysis of selected Etruscan remains (about 27 samples dating from an unspecified period of time). The study was published in Science Daily, May 21, 2006: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/05/060526065706.htm. The study (by Elizabeth Hadly) claims that the Etruscan language is not Indo-European. Her results also seem to have lacked a an awareness of the physical appearance of the Etruscans, who are shown in the wonderful murals of their tombs with light hair and several are blond. See Etruscan_Murals and the Miscellaneous Scripts for a better appreciation of these mysterious people or click on the collage image for a larger view. The Etruscans were known as seafarers in the ancient world (they myth of Dionysus speaks of his kidnapping by Tyrrhenian (Etruscan) pirates).

They probably included a mixed population from their trading inside Europe and around the Mediterranean. They favored cremation over inhumation, so DNA analysis would be limited. As a whole they seemed to fill the void in explorers left after the destruction of the Mycenaean civilization, the time of the Trojan War, destruction of the Hittite Empire, and a period when fortified towers were raised around the Mediterranean. The gay scenes in their tombs remind us, in fact, of Mycenaean and Cretan murals. As can be seen in the collage the blond haired fellow and friend are resting on a blanket that resembles a Scottish tartan.

To help you appreciate this work observe "The Battle of the Greeks and Amazons" from a sarcophagus from Tarquinia, now in the Archeological museum in Florence: There were two major mythological battles of the Amazons. The earlier involved a battle with Priam, king of Troy, in his youth. A later battle took place when the Amazons invaded Attica (Athens). This battle, based upon the inscription on the mural, involves the sons of Atys (Attis), a Lydian king who is the mythical ancestor of the Etruscans. His son was Tyrsenus, and from the name of Tyrsenus came the name of the Etruscan peoples, called Tyrrheni, or Tyrrhenians, according to the Greeks and Romans. To view more murals and paintings click on the panel below:


There are many myths about the origin of the Etruscans, as will be discussed on this site, but the Battle of the Greeks and Amazons says it all. The words above the battle are reconciled through the overall Etruscan vocabulary developed by the author through Table 1 and refined in the Etruscan Glossary). The script above this battle scene reads, as shown in Translation_Short_Scripts.html, "I have/ am of Tirai (Tyrsenus) the king of the cause of Ati (Atys) born of the god royal." This scene leads us back to the old myth involving kings Priam and Atys the Lydians. There are several references to Ati, and the sons of Ati, the locations of which can be determined using Indo_European_Table1 . Many of the mythological stories recounted on this site are based on The Meridian handbook of Classical Mythology (Originally published as Crowell's Handbook of Classical Mythology), by Edward Tripp, 1970. The photo of the Battle of the Amazons is courtesy of the Skira book on Etruscan Painting, a volume of the Collection, The Great Centuries of Painting, 1952. Many of the paintings and murals in the Etruscan tombs deal with Trojan themes. Probably emulating the Etruscan tombs were Thracian tombs. To view a Thracian mural click here.

A theme in the Etruscan tombs follows the principal theme of the Rig Veda, which I call, Banquet of the gods. Many stories in mythology begin with a banquet of the gods, and the heros and kings of men are immortalized within that theme. Also associated with the Banquet of the gods.html is a separate work on Hittite & Mitanni documentes, Hittite_Treaties.html. The Hittites and the Mitanni help set an important date with regard to the formation of the Indo-European languages, particularly with respect to their relationship to the Latin-Etruscan and Germanic languages. The Treaty of Mitanni, for instance, invokes the gods Indra, Mithra, Varuna and the "twins," of the Rig Veda. The treaty dates to about 1380 B.C.

"The Banquet of the gods" is a term used in the Rig Veda but is most appropriately viewed in Etruscan murals. While the Etruscan murals certainly reflect Greek mythology, the scenes of a banquet in death are best matched with those of the Egyptian tombs. Nothing reminds us of this close relationship more than the Zagreb Mummy text, a text written in Etruscan on a woman's mummy found in Egypt. A significant breakthrough occurred with the translation of a text on a mirror, MS 565 /2 in the possession of the Schoyen Collection. The mirror contains a scene involving Icarius, the disciple of Dionysus, who set off with his faithful dog to spread the knowledge of wine making. Because we knew the subject of the mirror from the illustration, and because words in the text are used in other texts, we were able to make a literary step in proving the Etruscan Glossary. Of interest in MS 565/2 is a particular word, 8RATER (brater, frater), meaning "brother." This word declines in the Tavola Eugubine, scripts N, Q, R and G (see glossary). The Tavola Eugubine contains many names of gods and goddesses, Greek references, and is highly religious in nature, containing considerable repetition, as would be expected in religious tracts.

Herodotus tells us through his inquiries in Egypt he believed that the Greeks got their gods directly from Egypt (except for Poseiden, who came from Lybia, it was claimed). In The Histories (440 B.C.), he says:

Book II.L. In fact, the names of nearly all the gods came to Hellas from Egypt. For I am convinced by inquiry that they have come from foreign parts, and I believe that they came chiefly from Egypt. Except the names of Poseidon and the Dioscuri, as I have already said, and Hera, and Hestia, and Themis, and the Graces, and the Nereids, the names of all the gods have always existed in Egypt. I only say what the Egyptians themselves say. The gods whose names they say they do not know were, as I think, named by the Pelasgians, except Poseidon, the knowledge of whom they learned from the Libyans. Alone of all nations the Libyans have had among them the name of Poseidon from the beginning, and they have always honored this god. The Egyptians, however, are not accustomed to pay any honors to heroes.

Among the major gods and godesses in Egypt Herodotus links Dionysus with Osiris, Isis with Demeter. The children of Osiris and Isis are Apollo (Egypt. Horus) and Artemis (Egypt. Bubastis). The nurse of Horus is the goddess Leto, of whom Herodotus says:

Leto, one of the eight gods who first came to be, who was living at Buto where this oracle of hers is, taking charge of Apollo from Isis, hid him for safety in this island which is now said to float, when Typhon came hunting through the world, keen to find the son of Osiris. Apollo and Artemis were (they say) children of Dionysus and Isis, and Leto was made their nurse and preserver; in Egyptian, Apollo is Horus, Demeter Isis, Artemis Bubastis. It was from this legend and no other that Aeschylus son of Euphorion took a notion which is in no poet before him: that Artemis was the daughter of Demeter.

Leto is mentioned in the Etruscan scripts and among the (Greek) legends shown in Etruscan tomb murals is Typhon. The Greeks called Leto "the goddess of the night," says Herodotus. It may be that the Etruscans will be a link between the Greek and Egyptian memories of these myths.

The battle of the hero with a dragon, as Osiris (Dionysus) with Set (Typhon), refers us back to the common formative theme in the Rig Veda of Indra and Vrtra, and other Indo-European myths, including Beowulf and Grendel. The Dragon-killer theme is also Mesopotamian, being a core theme in the Gilgamesh Epic, in the story of Ishtar and Tammuz. Tammuz was a diety of agriculture and flocks, personifying the creative powers of spring. His consort was the goddess Ishtar who is reported to have gone into the underworld to recover him when he died (as Isis recovered the body of her husband, Osiris).

Dumuzi, left, bound in hands and feet, before a god(dess) flanked by snakes. A storm god (right) stands atop a dragon (from bibleorigins.net; See also the seal of Ningishzida: http://www.bibleorigins.net/TammuzDumuziDamuSeal.html)

Ningishzida with serpent dragon heads on his shoulder presenting King Gudaea of Samaria. Note dragon later known as the god Marduk on the left. (from bibleorigins.net)

Tile of Marduk from the Ishtar gate of Babylon

Tuchulcha threatening Theseus; Etruscan Tomb of Orcos, Tarquinia. See Etruscan_Murals.html

The festival of Tammuz (Sumerian, Dumuzi), commemorating the annual death and rebirth of vegetation, took place in the early Spring. Among the Greeks he was known as Adonis and the Phrygians and Lydians Attis. The Dragon-killer story continued via the Canaanite Baal (meaning "lord"), the son of El, whose wife is Anat. Baal was a storm and vegetation god, like Indra, who released the rains and floods. Like the Sumarian Dumuzi and later Babylonian Tammuz, Baal descends into the underworld and is resurrected to bring forth the spring vegetation. A story of Baal is remembered in the Biblical tale of Bel and the Dragon:

1: When King Astyages was laid with his fathers, Cyrus the Persian received his kingdom.
2: And Daniel was a companion of the king, and was the most honored of his friends.
3: Now the Babylonians had an idol called Bel, and every day they spent on it twelve bushels of fine flour and forty sheep and fifty gallons of wine.
4: The king revered it and went every day to worship it. But Daniel worshiped his own God.
5: And the king said to him, "Why do you not worship Bel?" He answered, "Because I do not revere man-made idols, but the living God, who created heaven and earth and has dominion over all flesh."
6: The king said to him, "Do you not think that Bel is a living God? Do you not see how much he eats and drinks every day?"
7: Then Daniel laughed, and said, "Do not be deceived, O king; for this is but clay inside and brass outside, and it never ate or drank anything."
8: Then the king was angry, and he called his priests and said to them, "If you do not tell me who is eating these provisions, you shall die.
9: But if you prove that Bel is eating them, Daniel shall die, because he blasphemed against Bel." And Daniel said to the king, "Let it be done as you have said."
10: Now there were seventy priests of Bel, besides their wives and children. And the king went with Daniel into the temple of Bel.
11: And the priests of Bel said, "Behold, we are going outside; you yourself, O king, shall set forth the food and mix and place the wine, and shut the door and seal it with your signet.
12: And when you return in the morning, if you do not find that Bel has eaten it all, we will die; or else Daniel will, who is telling lies about us."
13: They were unconcerned, for beneath the table they had made a hidden entrance, through which they used to go in regularly and consume the provisions.
14: When they had gone out, the king set forth the food for Bel. Then Daniel ordered his servants to bring ashes and they sifted them throughout the whole temple in the presence of the king alone. Then they went out, shut the door and sealed it with the king's signet, and departed.
15: In the night the priests came with their wives and children, as they were accustomed to do, and ate and drank everything.
16: Early in the morning the king rose and came, and Daniel with him.
17: And the king said, "Are the seals unbroken, Daniel?" He answered, "They are unbroken, O king."
18: As soon as the doors were opened, the king looked at the table, and shouted in a loud voice, "You are great, O Bel; and with you there is no deceit, none at all."
19: Then Daniel laughed, and restrained the king from going in, and said, "Look at the floor, and notice whose footsteps these are."
20: The king said, "I see the footsteps of men and women and children."
21: Then the king was enraged, and he seized the priests and their wives and children; and they showed him the secret doors through which they were accustomed to enter and devour what was on the table.
22: Therefore the king put them to death, and gave Bel over to Daniel, who destroyed it and its temple.
23: There was also a great dragon, which the Babylonians revered.
24: And the king said to Daniel, "You cannot deny that this is a living god; so worship him."
25: Daniel said, "I will worship the Lord my God, for he is the living God.
26: But if you, O king, will give me permission, I will slay the dragon without sword or club." The king said, "I give you permission."
27: Then Daniel took pitch, fat, and hair, and boiled them together and made cakes, which he fed to the dragon. The dragon ate them, and burst open. And Daniel said, "See what you have been worshiping!"
28: When the Babylonians heard it, they were very indignant and conspired against the king, saying, "The king has become a Jew; he has destroyed Bel, and slain the dragon, and slaughtered the priests."
29: Going to the king, they said, "Hand Daniel over to us, or else we will kill you and your household."
30: The king saw that they were pressing him hard, and under compulsion he handed Daniel over to them.
31: They threw Daniel into the lions' den, and he was there for six days.
32: There were seven lions in the den, and every day they had been given two human bodies and two sheep; but these were not given to them now, so that they might devour Daniel.
33: Now the prophet Habakkuk was in Judea. He had boiled pottage and had broken bread into a bowl, and was going into the field to take it to the reapers.
34: But the angel of the Lord said to Habakkuk, "Take the dinner which you have to Babylon, to Daniel, in the lions' den."
35: Habakkuk said, "Sir, I have never seen Babylon, and I know nothing about the den."
36: Then the angel of the Lord took him by the crown of his head, and lifted him by his hair and set him down in Babylon, right over the den, with the rushing sound of the wind itself.
37: Then Habakkuk shouted, "Daniel, Daniel! Take the dinner which God has sent you."
38: And Daniel said, "Thou hast remembered me, O God, and hast not forsaken those who love thee."
39: So Daniel arose and ate. And the angel of God immediately returned Habakkuk to his own place.
40: On the seventh day the king came to mourn for Daniel. When he came to the den he looked in, and there sat Daniel.
41: And the king shouted with a loud voice, "Thou art great, O Lord God of Daniel, and there is no other besides thee."
42: And he pulled Daniel out, and threw into the den the men who had attempted his destruction, and they were devoured immediately before his eyes.

The Etruscan language (The Etruscan culture appeared in Italy ~1,000 B.C.) can be treated as a viable language dating c. 1,200 B.C., probably based in Anatolia, when major climatic changes forced Indo-Europeans on the march. Some left Anatolia "because of a long drought," and about the same time in the Rig Veda we see the Aryans singing hymns to their gods, including the now dry Sarasvati river, having to do with the god Indra killing the dragon that holds back the rain and waters of the Sarasvati. The Sarasvati is an old river that, according to the Rig Veda, descended from the Himalyas to the sea. The Sarasvati river ran parallel to the Indus river and included ancient ruins now known as the Harappa Civilization. The rites of the Sarasvati among the Hindus, of inviting the gods to a banquet, to appease the gods so they will be favorable, is essentially the same rite we see among the Sumerians, Egyptians, the Greeks, Etruscans and others. Of these ancients and others the Thracians are of interest because in the Illiad they were well-known for their horses (as were the Etruscans and Trojans), were allies of the Trojans – no doubt spoke a language familiar to the Greeks and the Trojans – and built tombs similar to the Etruscans. In the Illiad Achillês sold one of King Priam's sons to the Thracians. Much of the Etruscan mythology refers back to the Trojan War.

Thracian mural from the Kazanluk Tomb

The Etruscans show a rich heritage in their artifacts and tombs having to do with the Trojan war. The date of that war is believed to be about 1,180 B.C, the same time the Hittite empire met its demise and it may be the same time when the Ayans of the Rig Veda marched into the Indus Valley and Sarasvati river basin, although Hindu scholars tend to subscribe to a date ~ 1,500 B.C. or earlier. We can say that the warriors of the Rig Veda were equipped with iron and spoke of iron fortresses. While the word for iron may have included "bronze" it is clear from the Illiad that the time of its war is an Iron Age period, when it speaks of iron weapons and particularly the lump of iron that was thrown in the games around the tomb of Patroclüs. In the Illiad, Book XXIII, "The Funeral of Patroclüs," we are told that "..Achilles brought out a lump of roughcast iron which that mighty man Eëtion used to hurl. When he killed Eëtion, he brought it away with ther est of the spoils. He rose now and said: 'Rise, you who wish to contend for this prize. Any man will have enough here to use for five revolving years, even if his fat fields are far away. No shepherd or plowman will need to visit the city for iron, there will be plenty at home.'"

The Etruscans are a key to understanding the history that has been passed down to us. They had (no doubt long-standing) trade relationships with Phoenicia and Egypt, as well as Western European Celts and Iberians. They became a center in mining and trading iron and may very well have aquired iron smelting technology from Anatolia. They also were known for their workmanship in gold, the raw material of which they may have gotten from Iberian, Thracian, Anatolian, British and Egyptian resources. They were sea-traders and in the story of Dionysus, whose homeland was believed to be Thrace or Phrygia, the Etruscans are remembered as pirates. Apparently a Tyrrhenian ship kidnapped Dionysus and his "nurses" from the island of Icaria. The sailors began to fight over the youth, since he was quite handsome, and the captain of the ship, Acoetes, did as much as he could to protect the young man. Suddenly in spite of a stiff breeze in its sails, the ship stood still and then ivy and grapevines began to entangle everyone on the ship; then wild beasts – panthers, lions and bears – suddenly appeared on deck. Some say that the captain was eaten by a lion. In any event the terrified sailors jumped off the ship and turned into dolphins. As for the dolphins, having once been humans, from thereafter friendly to human beings. Dionysus placed one of them among the stars to commemorate his triumph and, no doubt, as a warning to pirates. Dionysus' travels carried him to many parts of the world, including India and Egypt. Among his many adventures he is said to have routed the Amazons before Heracles made his famous expedition to their country. Dionysus got involved in the war between the gods and the Giants. Led by his braying asses, satyrs, seleni and Hephaestus, Dionysus rushed upon the Giants, but was turned back by the monster Typhon, and flew to Egypt. He and the other gods took refuge there disguising themselves as various animals. Dionysus took the form of a goat. While he and his army or followers were in Egypt they were lost and without water in the desert. Someone spied a stray ram and followed it. It vanished but on the spot where it was they spied a spring. To commemorate this event, Dionysus established a shrine of the ram-headed god Ammon and also placed the ram in the stars as the constellation aries. Dionysus and his followers returned to Olympus after Zeus had thrown the island of Sicily on top of the monster Typhon, who had been chasing them.

Our job is to reconcile what we can see in Etruscan artifacts and murals with the Etruscan writings, together with the mythology about which we know they would have written. In this process the Battle of the Amazons script above, which uses words common to other scripts, is an important confirmation of the translations of other Etruscan scripts. For instance, the Etruscan word for king, RVI (written as OVI), roi, is the same as in French. As will be evidenced from Indo-European Tables 1 & 2 the Etruscan language is very close to Latin but has Italian, French and Galic shadows.

When one is involved with an archeological study, one must observe and record the data without manipulation and let the results speak for themselves. This is the spirit in which this study was founded and offered. The results of this study on the Etruscan language are recorded in Table 1 below. Table 1 shows the Etruscan vocabulary in a spread-sheet, mapped with other Indo-European languages. I have color-coded the entries in Table 1 with red, green and blue, to show in graphic form the similarities between words and groups of words according to the three color codes. The table has Etruscan on the right-hand column and the columns to the left of it move, as it were, from west to east. "Red" marks the words which seem to be focused in the western Indo-European mix of languages, with Latin at its center. I call this group, "Latin-Etruscan." "Green" marks words that have affinity to the Germanic, Celtic, Baltic, and Slavic side of the spectrum, among which English is the focus for that group. "Blue" is used to mark words which tend to flow through the eastern side (Sanskrit) of the Indo-European family. What I am looking for through these color codes is a pattern, a few strands, like strands of DNA, that can point to language groups. We find that the strands transcend the commonplace characterization of the "satem" and "centum" group designation for the selected groups of Indo-European languages. This becomes more apparent in examining Indo-European Table 2, which summarizes the data in Table 1.

Indo-European Table 1 is a map showing the relationships of the wor
ds found in the Etruscan vocabulary. Because the Etruscan language is frozen in time (~500 B.C.), it is a good reference on the evolution of related Indo-European languages. Just as we now utilize maps of genetic movement through populations, so too can we map the flow of words through populations using a map similar to Table 1.

A major effort is now being exercised in mapping languages. Thus, Table 1 follows, and is a part of, that effort; and there are many discoveries in Table 1 which are fascinating and bear further investigation. Watching the table evolve I am most curious in the part Albanian is playing in it. While one can see a distinct and dominating "red line" running through the table showing Etruscan words and their relatives, mainly Latin, French and Italian, Albanian comes into view as a link between the Italic languages and the Germanic tongues. Those who are proficient in English will appreciate how many Albanian words in Table 1 are familiar to English speakers. Albanian is particularly interesting since the language has survived since before Roman times, and the placement of the Albanian homeland has always been in dispute. Several ancient cartographers placed Albania north of the Caucaus mountains. To see such a map click here:

The Albanians occupy an area which used to be called Illyria. Some of the people from that area moved across the Adriatic sea into Northern Italy, near Venice, and southern Italy (Apulia), and to this day a dialect of Albanian survives in those regions. The people that occupied Illyria in the first millennium B.C. buried their dead in dolmens and barrows (tumuli), and similar constructions can be seen in Apulia. The Etruscans modified the barrow by digging into the tufa and adorning the tomb with wonderful frescos and reliefs.

The Albanians have been in the cross-roads of history, having been occupied by the Greeks, the Romans, and the Turks (They were under Turkish rule for 500 years), and in spite of the long occupations by each conqueror, their language has survived. In Table 1 you can discern Albanian words which are no doubt from Latin, a few words that are close to Greek, and a lot of words which relate to English roots. Albanians, after a manner of speaking, have experienced – perhaps more so – cultural mixing like the ancient English speaking group(s). Like English, in spite of all the external influences and attempts to displace the root language, the root remains and is quite discernable. We can call those roots "cognates," words that have a similar sound and meaning between two or more languages. Mapping the cognates can reveal how a language spread. Again, since we know that Etruscan is a dead language and has remained as such since before Cicero's time (43 B.C.), we have in Etruscan a [scientific] blind against which we can measure the other languages in Table 1.

What is shown in Table 1 is a map of three Indo-European linguistic strands: an Eastern (Blue), a Middle (Green), and a Western group (Red). The Slavic language group, which is in the main represented in Table 1 by Polish, appears in the "green" zone. Sanskrit, Avestan and Persian I placed in the "blue" zone. What is interesting about Table 1 is that some of the solid "green" and "red" zone languages have words that fall into the "blue," Sanskrit zone. German and Gaelic – including Old English – fall solidly into the (Green) zone, and French, Italian, Etruscan and Latin represent the strongest band in Table 1: the red zone.

As in Albanian and English, the Poles have been occupied by Roman and Germanic interests; so it is no surprise to see a strong representation of those languages in its language. French has from the beginning had a most curious interplay in the Etruscan Vocabulary and Table 1, for there are many Etruscan words whose only cognate is, at the moment, found only in the French language. Some of these cognates tie into the Green strand through Gaelic. Italian cognates also fit into this French-Etruscan map, and many of the cognates fit into the "blue," Eastern field of the Indo-European language map of Table 1.

The Gaelic (Celtic) languages, while fitting solidly into the "green" field of Table 1, seem to have a stronger bias towards the "blue," Eastern field. Welsh, of those Celtic languages most represented in Table 1, harbors a perspective of a group of people with a long-standing presence in the center of the Indo-European migration patterns.

The Welsh, like the Albanians, come from an area which has been a cross-road of civilization. They trace their origins to the Cimri and their traditions, as with the other Celtic peoples, link the Cimri to the Cimmerians, who were the Scythians of the Black Sea area. The Welsh are important in terms of linguistic study, because they were the last of the Celtic peoples to become subdued by the Saxons and the Normans. The mountainous region of Wales became, in fact, a last point of refuge for the Celts fleeing from the invasion of the British islands. Generally, when being pressed by the expansion or invasion of another group of peoples, a group ends up in the more remote, inaccesible and inhospitable regions of their territory. Thus, the Welsh, like the Albanians, who may have occupied the ancient lands of Colchis, north of the Caucaus mountians and now occupy the mountainous regions of the Dalmatian (Illyrian) coast, retain linguistic characteristics of the early Celtic population, least impacted by the Germanic and Roman invaders. Even during the time of the Norman occupation of England (beginning with the battle of Hastings in 1066 A.D., of William the Conqueror), the Welsh continued to maintain their sovereignty and unique Gaelic dialect. Wales held out until the Act of Union of 1536, when it was formally joined to the kingdom of England. The Celts who had settele in Ireland, in fact, had sought Wales as a refuge, when they were invaded; they also invaded the western coast of the island now called England and settled there, leaving the name, Scot, and what we now know as the Scottish dialect. The inhabitants of Scotland during the period of Celtic settlements in the British Isles were Picts. According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica the

"Picts (from Latin Picti,'painted'), [are] one of an ancient people who lived in what is now eastern and northeastern Scotland, from Caithness to Fife. Their name may refer to their custom of body painting or possibly tattooing.

"Probably descendants of pre-Celtic aborigines, the Picts were first noticed in AD297, when a Roman writer spoke of the 'Picts and Irish [Scots] attacking' Hadrian's Wall. Their warfare with the Romans during the occupation was almost continual. Then or soon after, they seem to have developed two kingdoms north of the Firth of Forth, a southern and a northern; but by the 7th century there was a united 'Pict-land,' which already had been penetrated by Christianity. In 843, Kenneth I MacAlpin, king of the Scots (centred in Argyll and Bute), became also king of the Picts, uniting their two lands in a new kingdom of Alba, which evolved into Scotland.

"The Pictish kingdom is notable for the stylized but vigorous beauty of its carved memorial stones and crosses. The round stone towers known as brochs, or 'Pictish towers,' and the underground stone houses called weems, or 'Picts' houses,' however, both predate this kingdom."

The practice of tatooing among the Indo-Europeans can be traced back to the Scythians, and this practice was found also among the Tocharian graves. Archeologists have commented on how the Tocharian fabrics matched Scottish tartans, and a similar relationship exists with some Baltic groups. Archeology, it seems, is confirming the traditions and ancient reports of the Celtic peoples. For the Celtic tradition, according to Jean Markale, The Celts, Uncovering the Mythic and Historic Origins of Western Culture, Inner Traditions International, Rochester Vermont, 1993, recounts emmigration to the British Isles from the Baltic lowlands. Markale opens his argument with the early Celtic myths of a flood and traces the mythology to the raising of the sea-level along the Baltic states. A later invasion of refugees from the Baltic states, invading the Celtic (British) Isles, was that of the Angles and the Saxons, and following them from Normandy were the Normans of William the Conqueror.

When the British Isles were being invaded, displaced populations sought refuge in Wales and then crossed the English Channel to Brittany (Amorica). The beginning of this immigration to Brittany was with the first Roman invasions of Gaul. The Gauls (Celts) of France maintained close links with the British Celts, particularly through trade, and Brittany became a last place of refuge for the Welsh. Thus, we can see the Welsh language being represented in Brittany as "Breton," and Brittany becoming another place of refuge for the vestiges of the Celtic language.

From an over-view the Celtic language is related to Latin and Etruscan, and it reflects a position solidly positioned in the "green" zone of Table 1, but interfacing more with the "blue" zone than Latin or Etruscan. This relationship bears more significance when we take into consideration what we know about the Celts, from the ancient historians and Celtic mythology and culture. When we add data from the Tocharians to the map the more eastern bias of the Celtic language to that of Etruscan becomes significant. We know that the Etruscans were in Italy about 1,000 B.C., and that is about the time of early Celtic emmigration from the Baltic states to the British Isles. And this movement of the Celts may have been a continuing expansion of several hundered years up the Danube river from the Crimea or Black Sea area in general. This brings us back to the Trojan war about 1180 B.C. and the break-up of the Hittite empire – one of the earliest Indo-European peoples – in Anatolia about the same time. About 900-800 B.C. the Scythians roamed Central Asia from slightly east of the Altai Mountains in Inner Mongolai to the Black Sea region. After they arrived in the Crimea they drove the Cimmerians out of that region. Cimmerians assaulted Urartu (Armenia) about 714 B.C. and were repulsed in 705 B.C. by Sargon II of Assyria. Being turned aside by Sargon II, about 695 B.C. the Cimmerians conquered Phrygia, taking Sardis, the Lydian capital, in 652 B.C. Alyattes of Lydia threw them out about 626 B.C., after which the Cimmerians ceased to be heard from again. A group of them may have settled in the center of Anatolia, Cappadoica, but Celtic mythology also suggests that they may have ended up along the Baltic coast, as the Cymry. The Baltic coast, by the way, was a source of amber, the precious tears of the gods that was treasured from the Mycennean age to this day.

It is believed that the Celts "spread over much of Europe between the second and first centuries B.C. Their tribes and groups eventually ranged from the British Isles and northern Spain to as far east as Transylvania, the Black Sea coasts, and Galatia in Anatolia and were in part absorbed into the Roman Empire as Britons, Gauls, Boii, Galatians, and Celtiberians. Linguistically they survive in the modern Celtic speakers of Ireland, Highland Scotland, the Isle of Man, Wales, and Brittany" (Encyclopaedia Britannica). The oldest archeological evidence of the Celts comes from Hallstat, Austria. "..more than 2,000 graves were found at Hallstatt. The majority fall into two groups, an earlier (c. 1100/1000 to c. 800/700 BC) and a later (c. 800/700 to 450 BC). Near the cemetery was a prehistoric salt mine; because of the preservative nature of the salt, implements, parts of clothing, and even the bodies of the miners themselves have been discovered" (Encyclopaedia Britannica). This culture reflects the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age culture of central and western Europe. Its earliest phase, A, shows Villanovan influence. Villanova is a site near Bologna, Italy. "The Villanovan people branched from the cremating Urnfield cultures of eastern Europe and appeared in Italy in the 10th or 9th century BC. The earliest burial rites were usually with cremation; the ashes of the dead were placed in a decorated pottery ossuary of a biconical, or two-storied, form and covered with a bowl. The lid of the urn was sometimes a pottery imitation of a helmet, either the knobbed bell helmet of eastern central Europe or the crested helmet of northern Europe, theVillanovan helmet par excellence.

"The Villanovans living in Tuscany also used the terra-cotta hut urn, which imitated a hut of wattle and daub on a frame of poles. The hut urn is characteristic of northern European urn fields, whereas the two-storied urn may be related to similar urns from Hungary and Romania.

"The Villanovans controlled the rich copper and iron mines of Tuscany and were accomplished metalworkers. In the second half of the 8th century the Villanovans of Tuscany were influenced artistically by Greece; also, inhumation became the predominant burial rite, as it did during the same period in Greece." (Encyclopaedia Britannica)

The Villanovans went through an Orientalizing phase (which prompted scholars to speculate that the Etruscans, who sprouted from the Villanovan culture, have an oriental origin, from Anatolia or further east. According to Massimo Pallottino,

"During the more evolved phase of the Villanovan culture notable changes began to appear which anticipate the splendour of the subsequent Orientalizing phase: there was the spread of inhumation and the appearance of the first chamber tombs, the use of iron became more general, and decorated motifs (scarabs and amulets of Egyptian type, Greek painted pottery and its imitations, etc.). The passage from Villanovan to Orientalizing was therefore neither radical nor sudden. Many aspects of the Orientalizing phase (the great architectural or pseudo-architectural tombs themselves, black bucchero pottery, ornaments and jewellery) were well within the scope of indigenous culture, though they might well have been stimulated by external influence, both eastern and Greek, and especially by economic prosperity. Individual objects and motifs were imported from Egypt, Syria, Cyprus, Rhodes and from Greece in general; others came from even more distant lands, Mesopotamia or Armenia (Urartu). A characteristic type of decoration mingled Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Syrian, Aegean and near Eastern motifs, at times in hybrid compositions; another took over friezes composed of real and fantastic animals as found in luxury articles of Cypro-Phoenician origin, but re-worked and spread mainly by the Greeks themselves in the course of the seventhy century B.C. The main impression gained when considering Etruscan tombs of the Orientalizing period and their sumptuous contents is that the essential forms of the culture they represent had their roots in a local tradition, whereas the spirit and outward appearance of the decorative elements were acquired and may be attributed to eastern 'fashion.' If we ignore for the moment the composite character – indigenous and exotic – of Etruscan Orientalizing, and examine only its imported elements, it becomes clear that they are not confined to Etruria, but are more or less present in many other Mediterranean lands, beginning with Greece itself, where no Tyrrhenian immigration could possibly be suspected.

"After the Orientalizing phase of the seventh and sixth centuries B.C., Etruria received a large measure of cultural and artistic influences from the Greek world (Ionia at first, and later Attica). A much more decisive alteration of the old indigenoius culture took place under this influx: it even affected religion and everyday life, as is clearly shown by the Greek gods and myths that penetrated Etruria...Nor was there a sudden change in burial rite from cremation, typical of the Villanovan period, to Orientalizing inhumation. In southern Etruria, the earliest Villanovan stages already produced a mixture of trench (fossa) graves and cremations in well (pozzo) graves. Inhumation gradually established itself during the later Villanovan phases, and this phenomenon took place during the eighth century not only in Etruria but in Latium too, where no Etruscan 'arrival' has been postulated. In addition, it appears to be limited entirely to southern Etruria, while the regions of the interior (e.g. Chiusi) preserved the prevailing rite of cremation during Orientalizing times and for all the successive phase of Etruscan civilization" (The Etruscans, Massimo Pallottino, Indiana University Press, 1975, pp. 71,72; first published as Etruscologia by Ulrico Hoepli, Milan, 1942).

At the eastern end of Lake Neuchâtel, Switzerland a site was excavated which represents the Late Iron Age culture of European Celts, called La Tène. Its earliest phase dates from about 450-390 B.C. and is marked by influence from Greco-Etruscan imports. The early Celts in Europe can be thus located as traders between the Greek and Etruscan civilizations, which were dominant at that time, and Europe to the north of them. If we compare this archeological evidence to the first recorded history of the Cimbri (Cymbry):

"The Cimbri make their first appearance in recorded history around the year 113 B.C. for it was then, according to Greek and Roman historians, that a disastrous tidal wave forced them to leave their home in Cimbrica Chersonesus (the Jutland peninsula) and hasten southwards with their women and children to make new settlements.

"They went first towards the Danube where they encountered the Boii who had settled in Bohemia. 'The Boii, who once dommanded the Hercynian forest, were attacked by the Cimbri but drove them back.' (Strabo, VII, 2.2) Thrown back on the volcae who promptly drove them into the land of the Taurisci, they travelled on into Pannonia 'an the land of the Scordisci, a tribe of Galatian or Gallic origin and then to the land of the Tauristi or Taurisci, another Gallic tribe.' (ibid.] Encountering fierce opposition in that area, the Cimbri were forced back into Noricum and made their way as far as Noreia.

As allies of the Taurisci, the Romans demanded that the Cimbri leave the region, whereupon the Cimbri opened negotiations with the consul Papirius Carbo and asked to be granted land. These talks were rudely interrupted by the Romans whose demand the Cimbri ignored. The Cimbri then continued their way westward and finally settled in the region of the Main where they were joined by the Teutons, the tribe with which their name has been coupled ever since" (The Celts, pp. 37-38).

In the Etruscan scripts the word, 8VIA, Script Q278, may be a reference to the Boii. The suffix, ia, tends to reflect proper names in Etruscan, as in Helen of Troy's name, Elinai in the Divine_Mirror.html, Atia, the god Hades, in the Tomb of Orcos. Also in the Tomb of Orcos is the name of Phersipnei (Persephone), showing a shift in the suffix from "ai" to "ei."

When we examine the archeological data on the spread of the Celts, who appear to have been at the least neighbors of the early 'Etruscan' peoples, when we compare that data to the mythical and historical records of them, we are prompted to wonder if there would be any linguistic relationship to them and the Etruscans. There is no argument among Indo-European scholars that the early Celtic language is closely related to the Italic languages. The question we pursue here is whether Etruscan, being very closely related to Latin, reflects a state of the Gallo-Italic languages circa. 1,000 B.C. Table 1 shows that the Gallic languages, represented primarily at the moment by Welsh, are close to Etruscan but their place is a solid Germanic "green" but having shades of "blue," being close to Persian first and, next, to Sanskrit. Although English contains Germanic, Celtic and, in the main, Latin it has "blue" in its field, but it is not as close to Sanskrit as Welsh. If we were to view Table 1 as we would the "red shift" used in Astronomical measurements for spacial measurements of objects, we could visualize Etruscan being on the extreme "western" edge of the shift with Sanskrit on the extreme "eastern" edge. Celtic, represented by Welsh, shows a slight "blue" shift. In this context, as archeology bears out so far, the oldest or earliest expansion to the west of the Indo-European languages is Etruscan, whose home is probably on the western edge of the original Indo-European group; i.e., Western Anatolia. Greek would have been lodged in the middle of the hoard, as Table 1 shows, and Slavic, represented by Polish, is also lodged in the middle, in the "green" zone with Greek. But the two language groups are separated by hundreds of years, as the Slavs would have been the last to leave the Russian steppes (of those who migrated from that area), which may explain the low coincidence between the two groups. While Persian, also a latter emmigrant from the steppes, would normally be "green" I have placed it in the "blue" zone, only because its movement (until the Persian wars) was eastward.

Table 1, of course, has a lot a work ahead of it before it can really show the true relationship of these peoples to one another, where they were located in their steppe home-land. If we introduce the Scythians into the mix, about 1,200-900 B.C., moving west from Inner Mongolia, which is when there was a climatic change causing the flooding on the Baltic coast, for example, and probably droughts in other places, we may be able to explain the movement of the groups occupying the same grass-lands as being initiated by climate change.

An unusual example of climate change ~1,200 B.C. is recorded in the Mt. Bego and Valcamonica rock carvings in the Alps. A site describing these rock carvings is at http://rupestre.net/alps/bego.html. Mt. Bego occupies a higher elevation and consists of rock engravings of warriors, plowing scenes and lots of swords, all dating from the late Neolithic to the Bronze Age. The lower altitude Valcamonica rock engravings date from the iron age, and it is speculated that the cessation of rock engravings at Mt. Bego by the time of the Iron Age is due to the fact that the climate got colder. Today both regions are covered by snow and ice from October-November to June, and the engravings, now in national parks, may be viewed in the summer. The cessation of engravings on Mt. Bego would be explained by the fact that the ice field failed to melt at the end of the Bronze Age and early Iron Age. This colder climate correlates to drought-like conditions. Droughts cause people to seek better pastures. When people move they can displace other peoples in their path. When people move they migrate rather quickly.

The most recent people to have moved across the steppes from the east are the non-Indo-European Huns or Magyars and before them the nomadic Turks, whose capital was in Mongolia. Before them came the Mongols under Ghengis Khan.

The early Indo-Europeans moved quite quickly from Asia to Europe, and we can measure how quickly they could have moved by the examples of the invasion of the Mongols

Ghengis assumed the title of khan in 1206 A.D., and by 1223 his armies had spread from Mongolia over the Caucaus mountains. In 1258 Ghengis' brother, Hülegü, occupied Baghdad; Kiev fell in the winter of 1236-37 and Hungary was invaded in 1241-42, and the Golden Horde during the thirteenth to fourteenth centuries controlled everything from the Ob river in Siberia to Moldavia, Hungary, including the Crimea, and its southern extremity from the southern reaches of the Caspian Sea (opposite the Iron Gates) to Lake Balkhash. This was the western half of the Mongol empire. The other, eastern, reached from the Il-Khanid Empire covering Iran and Iraq to Mongolia. These people moved on wagons bringing their families with them, as the Mongols do to this day. And they covered the lands from Mongolia to Kiev and Bagdhad in about 50 years. We can use this to view how the Celts moved about, since they also took their entire tribe in wagons from one place to another in Europe.

In their engagements with each other and the Romans the various tribes of the Celts had their wagons, with all their families, criss-crossing Europe – like the early American pioneers heading west in their wagon trains from St. Louis, Missouri. The Celts sacked Rome and they occupied the sanctuary of Apollo, whom they worshipped as their sun god, in Delphi. And just as one can read in the Illiad, how the great warriors each went into battle with his own horse-teamed-chariot, so too was it a tradition for the Welsh and other Celts.

Unlike the other hordes, the Celts moved also by sea (a necessity, it seems, to get to the British Isles). This also seems to be a characteristic of the Greeks (we have the story of the Argonauts, the companion work to the Illiad) and the Etruscans. About 1,200 B.C. many people began raiding and plundering settlements along the Mediterranean littoral. These were recorded by the Egyptian pharoah Ramesses, and included among them were Danuna (Greeks), Lukka (Lycians), Teresh (Tyrrhenians / Etruscans), Siceloi (Sicilians), Shardana (Sardinians) and Pulusti (Philistines). A site that describes the Sea Peoples is at http://nefertiti.iwebland.com/sea_peoples.htm.

Behind the tracks of the Sea Peoples we find barrows. The archeology of the barrows reflects them mainly along the coast, facing the sea. This is true of those (called dolmens) in southern Russia along the Black Sea (see http://www.admiral.ru/hp/wacfund/), all facing the sea, the Illyrian and Thracian barrows which face the sea, and the Iberian and British barrows that occupy a precious vista at the head of a valley or on a headland overlooking the sea. While their heritage may have been rooted in the steppes, where their barrows (called kurgans) would be used as special landmarks, the Indo-Europeans that took to the sea, put their barrows facing the sea (where possible). But then they had centers, such as Tara in the center of Ireland, where barrows of knights and kings and queens were centered. Similar centers for barrows can be seen in the Russian steppes and in various places in Europe.

The Celts venerated the barrows as a place of the Netherworld. They readily – outrageously – gave up their lives believing that there is an after-life, where they would dwell in the sidh. The Etruscan tombs are similar abodes of the dead, and there may be a similar morbidity in their view of death to that of the Celts. A Welsh tradition expressed the idea that if one were to lower a small child through a hole in a dolman, it would lead to good-fortune for the child. It so happens that dolmans along the coast of the Black Sea in Southern Russia (see www.admiral.ru) have the same holes in the front, often accompanied with a stone carved in the shape of a plug to fit in the hole. Since dolmons were used as family tombs, used over and over, and some re-occupied a few centuries later, it follows that entry into the tomb would have some ritual significance. In the modern world we carry on a similar ritual with regard to the burial of our leaders, with great ceremony and pomp, a period of mourning, and the placement of the leader beside other great leaders in a hallowed tomb. There is a communion with the dead hero that we experience, and this communion may describe how the ancient Celts, Cimmerians, Scythians and Etruscans related to their dead and their tombs, and why so many tombs exist. Westminster Abbey, for instance, is a center for the repose of modern British heroes and royalty. How we view it and continue its tradition. It may very well be no different than how the ancient Celts viewed Tara or Stonehenge – or how the Etruscans viewed the cities of their dead – or how Achilles viewed his fallen comrade, Patroclüs, in the closing chapters of the Illiad.

This is only the beginning of Table 1. As the laborious work in placing words into the table continues, more light will no doubt be shown, not only on the Etruscan language and the translations of the scripts therefrom, but also data on the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) language.

Table 1 was conceived as a means to map my findings on the Etruscan language with regard to other Indo-European languages. It has become a tool with which to explore more than I anticipated. I did believe that if the Etruscan myths were true their language would be a key to understanding the languages of the ancient Lydians and Phrygians – and Trojans as well. I have always been curious as to the language Achilles may have used against Hector, the Trojan prince, as he chased Hector around the walls of Troy. We know the language represented by the Mycenaean Greeks about 1,200 B.C. was ancient Greek. We don't know what language the Trojans spoke; nevertheless, the Mycenaean and Trojans spoke to each other. At the end of the Illiad, for instance, King Priam appears in the hut of Achilles to claim the body of his son, Hector. Both kings and their entourage spoke without need for an interpreter. Homer goes out of his way, in fact, to point out how the many nations that are allied with Troy are made up of different language groups. At least one nation, the Carrians, from the southeaster coast of Turkey, Cilicia, is described as "being of barbarian toungue."

In Homer the story of the Argonauts and Ovid's Metamorphosis, the people involved in the Trojan War practiced cremation, as a rule, the raising of burial mounds which could often be used as landmarks and places for look-out stations (towers) and the holding of games around the mound after the burial. It is also noted in the Illiad, with regard to the raising of the barrow of Patroclüs, that a turning post around which the chariot racers would turn was a "boundary" which is called "menhir" today. Also, in the raising of the barrow of Patroclüs the bard describes exactly what we find in other European barrows: a stone circle marking the perimeter of the tomb, that would hold in the dirt, the placement of stones to form the barrow, and the sacrifices, such as a bull, placed on the edge of the barrow.

The burial of Patroclüs is the oldest description that we have of an Indo-European mound burial. So it is worth repeating (1):

Illiad, book XXIII While the Trojans were mouring within their city, the Achaians made their way to the ships beside the Hellespont. Most of them dispersed to their own vessels, but Achilles would not let the Myrmidons disperse until he had addressed them in these words:
"Your horses have done good service today, my brave comrades; but we must not unyoke them yet. Let us go, horses and chariots and all, to mourn for Patrolcüs, for that is the honour due to the dead. When we have consoled ourselves with lamentation, let us unharness them and take our meal."

Then he led the cavalcade three times round the body, all mourning and crying aloud; and Thetis lamented with them. The sands were drenched with their tears, their armour was drenched, so much their hearts longed for that mighty man. And Peleidês led their lamentations, as he laid his manslaying hands on his true friends' breast:

"Fare thee well, Patrocl
üs, even in the house of death! See now I am fulfilling all that I promised! I said I would drag Hector to this place and give him to the dogs to devour raw; and in front of your pyre I would cut the throats of twelve noble sons of the Trojans, in payment for your death."

Then he did a vile outrage to royal Hector: he stretched the body on its face in the dirt beside the bier of Menoitiadês.

After that all took off their armour, and unharnessed the loud-whinnying horses, and sat down beside the ship of Achilles in their thousands. There he provided a fine funeral feast. Many bellowing
bulls fell under the knife, many sheep and bleating goats; many tusker boars bursting with fat were stretched out to singe over the fire. Around the dead body the blood of the victims poured out in cupfuls was running all over the ground.

Meanwhile Prince Peleion [Achilles] was being led by the Achaian chieftains to Agamemnon. They had trouble to persude him so deep was his sorrow for his comrade. At the King's headquarters orders were given to set a cauldron of water over the fire, that his body might be washed clean of the bloodstains, but he flatly refused and swore to it:

"No, by Zeus highest and greatest of gods! It is not lawful that water may come near my head, before I lay Patrocl
üs on the fire and build him a borrow and cut off my hair! For no second sorrow like this shall come upon me so long as I am among the living. Yet for this present we must consent to the meal which we hate. Then tomorrow, my lord King Agamemnon, shall be for bringing firewood and providing all that is proper to send the dead down into the dark. The fire shall burn him quickly out of sight, and the people shall return to their work."

They did accordingly: the meal was prepared, and all partook and found no lack. When they were statisfied, the others retired tor est; but Peleidês lay with many of his Myrmidons, in the open air on the shore of the sounding sea, while the waves washed on the beach, lay groaning heavily until sleep fell upon him: a deep sweat sleep that soothed the sorrows of his heart, for his strong limbs were weary with that long pursuit after Hector about the city of Ilios.

In sleep came to him the soul of unhappy Patroclüs, his very image in stature and wearing clothes like his, with his voice and those lovely eyes. The vision stood by his head and spoke:

"You sleep, Achilles, and you have forgotten me! When I lived you were not careless of me, but now that I am dead! Bury me without delay, that I may pass the gates of hades. Those phantoms hold me off, the souls of those whose work is done; they will not suffer me to join them beyond the river, but I wander aimlessly about the broad gates of the house of Hades. And give me that hand, I pray; for never again shall I come back from Hades when once you have given me my portion of fire. Nevewr again in life shall we go apart from our companions and take counsel together; but I am swallowed up already by that cruel fate which got me on the day I was born; and you also have your position, my magnificent Achilles, to perish before the walls of this great city. One thing more I say, and I will put it upon you as a chargeif you will comply: do not lay my bones apart from yours, Achilles, but with them, as I was brought up with you in your home, when Menoitios brought me quitge a little one from Opoeis to your house, for manslaughter, the day when I killed Amphidamas' son – I did not mean it, we had a silly quarrel over the knuckle-bones. Then Peleus received me, and brought me up kindly in his house, and name me as your attendant. Then let one urn cover my bones with yours, that golden two-handled urn which your gracious mother gave you."

Achilles said in answer:

"Why have you come here, beloved one, with all these charges of this and taht? Of course I will do as you tell me every bit. But come nearer; for one short moment let us lay our arms about each other and console ourselves with lamentation!"

He stretched out his arms as he spoke, but he could not touch, for the soul was gone like smoke into the earth, twittering. Achilles leapt up in amazement and clapped his hands with solemn words:

"See there now! So there is still something in the house of Hades, a soul and a phantom but no real life in it at all! For all night long the soul of unhappy Patroclüs has been by my side, sorrowing and lamenting and telling me what to do. And it was mightily like himself!"

All around were moved to lamentation when they heard his words. They were still mouring when Dawn showed her fingers of light. Then King Agamemnon sent out mules and men from the whole camp to bring firewood, under the charge of Idomeneus's man Merionês...Down on the shore they laid their logs in order, in the place where Achilles designed a great barrow for Patroclüs and himself.

When the logs were laid in their places, the men sat where they were, all together. Then Achilles ordered his Myrmidons to don their armour and harness their horses; they mounted the cars, both fighting men and drives, chariots in front, a cloud of footmen behind, thousands, and in the midst was Patroclüs borne by his comrades. They had cut off their hair and thrown it over the body like a shroud. Achilles came behind him clasping the head; his own unspotted comrade he was escorting to the grave.

At the place where Achilles had appointed, they laid him down and piled great heaps of firewood. Then Achilles did his part. He stood away from the pile, and cut off the golden tress which he had kept uncut among his thick hair for the river Spercheios, and spoke deeply moved as he gazed over the dark sea:

"O Spercheios! This is not for thee! That vow was vain which Peleus my father made, that when I returned to my native land I would consecrate my hair to thee, and make solemn sacrifice, and that he would sacrifice fifty rams without blemish into thy waters, at the altar which is in thy precinct at the same place. That was my father's vow, but thou didst not fulfil his hope. Now, therefore, since I am not to return to my native land, I would give the warrior Patroclüs this to carry with him:

The he laid the hair in the hands of his well-beloved companion. All present broke into lamentation with all their hearts; and they would not have ceased while the sun shone, but Achilles drew near Agamemnon and said to him:

"Atreidês, you are our lord paramount, and it is yours to command. There is plenty of time for the people to mourn, but just now I ask you to dismiss them from this place and tell them to get ready for their meal. All this is the business of those who are nearest akin to the dead; and let the chieftains remain with us.

Agamemnon accordingly dismissed the people, while the mourners remained and piled up the wood, and made a pyre of a hundred feet each way, and upon it they laid the body. They killed flocks of sheep and herds of cattle in front of the pyre, skinned them and cut them up; Achilles took away all the fat, and covered the dead with it from head to foot, and heaped the flayed bodies about him. Jars of honey and oil he placed leaning against the bier. Four horses he laid carefully on the pyre, groaning aloud. Nine dogs the prince had, that fed from his table; two of these Achilles took, and cut their throats and laid beside him. The twelve noble young Trojans he slew without mercy. Then he applied the relentless fire to consume all, and with a groan he called on his comrades name:

"Fare thee well Patroclüs, even in the grave fare thee well! See, I now fulfil all that I promised you before. Here are the twelve noble sons of Trojans – the fire is eating them round about you! Hector Priamidês the fire shall not have to eat, but the dogs!"

But his threat was vain: no dogs were busy about Hector, for the dogs were driven off by the daughter of Zeus, Aphrodite herself, by day and by night. She washed the skin with rose-oil of ambrosia that it might not be torn by the dragging; and Phoibos Apollo drew down a dark cloud from heaven to earth, and covered the place where the body lay, that the sun might not scorch the flesh too soon over the sinews of his limbs.

But the pyre would not burn, and Achilles did not know what to do. At last he stood well away from the smouldering heap, and prayed to North Wind and West Wind promising them good sacrifices; many a libation he poured from his golden goblet, praying them to come and make the wood quickly catch fire, to burn the bodies.

Iris heard his prayers, and flew quickly to the Winds with her message.

They were all in a party at West Wind's, and having a fine feast, when in came Iris flying and stood on the doorstone. As soon as they set eyes on her, up they all jumped and shouted out, every wind of them, "Come and sit by me!" But she said:

"No thank you, no sitting: I'm bound for the Ocean stream. There is a grand sacrifice in the Ethiopian country for us immortals, and I want to have some too. But Achilles is praying to North Wind and West Wind; he wants them to come and promises a good sacrifice. He wants them to make the pyre burn, where Patorclüs lies with the people all mouring around."

Her message given, away she flew, and the Winds rose with a devil of a noise and drove the clouds in a riot before them. They swooped upon the sea and raised the billows under their whisling blasts; they reached the Trojan coast and fell on the pyre till the flames roared again. All night long they beat upon the fire together blowing and whistling; all night long stood Achilles holding his goblet, and dipt into the golden mixer, and poured the wine on the ground, till the place was soaked, calling upon the soul of unhappy Patroclüs. As a father laments while he burns the bones of his own son, newly wedded and now dead, to the grief of his bereaved parents, so Achilles lamented as he burnt the bones of Patroclüs, stumbling up and down beside the pyre with sobbings and groanings.

But at the time when the morning star goes forth to tell that light is coming over the earth, and after him the saffron mantle of Dawn spreads over the sea, at that hour the flame died down and the burning faded away. Then the Winds returned over the Thracian gulf to their home, while the waters rose and roared.

And then Achilles moved away from the pyre, and sank upon the ground tired out: sleep leapt upon him and gave him peace.

Now the people were all gathering round Agamemnon. They made such noise and uproar that Achilles sat up and said:

"Atreidês, and you other princes, yhou must first quench the pyre with wine wherever the flames have touched. Then let us gather the bones of Patroclüs Menoitidês, and be careful to find the right ones. They are easy to know, for he lay right in the middle and the others were on the edge, horses and men together. His bones we must wrap in a double layer of fat and lay them in a golden urn, until I myself shall be hidden in Hades. But I do not wish any great mound to be raised for him, only just a decent one. Afterwards another can be raised both broad and high, by those of you who are left behind me."

They did his bidding at once. First they quenched the pyre with wine wherever it had burt and the ashes were deep; then weeping they gathered the bones of their gentle campanion, and laid them covered with fat in a golden urn, which they wrapt up in fine linen and put away safely in the hut. Round the pyre they set up a circle of stone slabs to mark the outside limit, and shovelled earth within.

We are studying not only the reports of cultures that spread megalithic monuments from east to west and west to east, but also their writings and grave goods. Barrows like those of Patroclüs have been found from Siberia to Ireland, from southern India to Spain. Interestingly the Tocharians of Siberia were red-headed and buried a queen in a hollowed out tree in a grave lined with timbers in a tumulus (barrow), around which were other tumuli. A similar field of tumuli can be seen in Ireland and points in-between. It is the prevailing theory that all of these peoples spoke a common language called PIE. To appreciate the scope and similarity of the Megalithic monuments, I recommend starting out with a tour of the following site: http://www.lessing4.de/megaliths/images.htm

The Megalithic People are remembered as people who were giants (because of their cyclopean constructions). What is interesting about the tales of some of these megalithic sites, as recorded on the Stonepages site,
http://www.stonepages.com, and others, is that there are reports that the stone or stones go down to the lake or river and bathe in the evening, or they spin around or, if one passes by them at a specific time of the evening at a specific time (like Halloween or December 21), a person can die, go crazy or turn into a poet. The ancient myths, such as you see recorded by Ovid in Metamorphosis, recount how men and women and gods and goddesses changed into animals, trees and stones. Even rocks had life, such as the clanging rocks guarding the Hellespont through which Jason and others had to navigate. As a ship would be passing between them, suddenly the rocks would close together, crushing the ship and all of its passengers. The Illiad's details on the barrows and traditions of the Trojans and Greeks also refers to the stones as having life to them. One group of stones mentioned in the Illiad involves a council of the elders who sat upon "polished stones."

Easter Aquhorthies recumbent stone circle, from Aberdeenshire.gov.uk. Recumbent stone circles are most abundant in northeastern Scotland and may be remembering a tradition involving courts as illustrated in the Iliad and Njal's Saga.
When you see such stone circles in your tour of the pages dedicated to Megaliths, picture King Agamemnon and his allies in council with regard to the conduct of the war against the Trojans. And it may be that Hector's proposal to the Achaians was in a stone circle. Njal's Saga, a late 13th century chronicle from Iceland, records a similar court before what is called the "Law Rock." Each year a special court, called the Althing, was held at the "Law Rock to judge disputes, divorces etc. The saga records a period during which Icelandic family disuptes produced many battles and revenge-killings. The disputes were resolved at the "Law Rock," in a manner similar to that recorded in the Illiad two thousand years earlier.

Listen to the bard's quote of Hector:

Illiad, Book VII: "Hear me speak, Trojans and Achaians both, and let me tell you what is in my mind. Cronidês throned on high would not let us keep our sworn treaty; but he ordains a hard struggle for us all, until either you shall take the castle of Troy, or you shall be vanquished yourselves beside your own ships. Here among you if any one of you has a mind to fight with me, let him come forth, and be your champion against Hector.

"Here is what I propose, and let Zeus be witness on both parts: if that man shall strike me down, let him strip me and take my armour for his spoil; but my body he shall give back to be carried home, that my people may give me dead my portion of fire. But if Apollo grant me success, and I strike him down, I will strip off his armour and take it into sacred Troy, and hang it before the temple of Apollo Shootafar; but the body I will give back, that his friends may carry it to their camp, to give him funeral and build him a barrow beside the broad Hellespont. Then men will say in far distant generations to come, as they sail along the shore, 'Yonder is the barrow of a man dead long ago, a champion whom famous Hector slew.' So my fame will never be forgotten."

The Illiad is at least as old as the Etruscan scripts, which date as early as 600 B.C. But it's tradition offers an earlier date which would be about 1,200 B.C., the time of the dominion of Mycenae, before the end of the Hittite Empire, circa. 1,180 B.C. The sons of the patriarch, Atreus, who were King Agememnon and his brother, Prince Menelaos, were considered the supreme kings of the Achianans at that time. In chapter XI of the Illiad Menelaos prepares for battle, putting on his armour. Compare his armour to that of Prince Serelus, of the Vetulonia tombstone:

Atreidês shouted orders to arm, and he armed himself. First he buckled on his fine greaves with silver anklets. Next he donned the corselet which Cinyrês had given him as a guest-gift; for the great rumour had come to Cyprus that the fleet was about to sail for Troy, and therefore he gave him this gift to please him. There were ten stripes of dark blue enamel upon it, twelve of gold, and twenty of tin; blue dragons reached up towards the neck, three on each side, like the rainbow which Cronion sets in the cloud to be a portent for mortal men.

Over his shoulder he threw the sword, with shining knobs of solid gold, and a silver sheath with golden slings.
He caught up a brave shield of fine workmanship, covering the body on both sides. Ten circles of bronze ran round it, and it had twenty bosses of white tin with one of blue enamel in the middle. Upon this boss was the grim-faced Gorgon glaring horribly, and on either side Terror and Panic. The shield-strap was of silver, and a blue dragon was twining upon it, with three heads twisted together and growing from one neck.

Upon his head he put a helmet with two horns and four bosses and a horsehair plume. How terrible was that nodding plume!

He took a pair of sharp spears with blades of bronze, which sent their glittering gleam high into the air.

The tradition of the barrows and Megaliths goes back in time to as early as 5,000 B.C., supported by the archeology of barrows in Ireland and the Megaliths of Malta. The Megaliths seemed to have reached a zenith about the time Stonehenge was raised, about 3,100 B.C. We don't know who these people were. We do know that the heirs of the Megalithic practice, traceable from about 1,500 B.C., are identifiable as Indo-Europeans. Among these people are the Greeks and the ancient Hindus (Aryans) who left us tales of the exploits of their heroes and gods, and following on their heals is the corpus written in Avestan (ancient Persian). Among these early groups were the Hittites who left us some historical records in cuneiform. Following on their heals, perhaps as refugees from the Trojan War, about 1,000 B.C., the Etruscans attempted to leave their mark on history. The objective of this work, of course, is to read what the Etruscans had to say. To learn more about the Greco-Trojan heroes and their world that preceeded them.

Putting a wrinkle in our knowledge of the peoples who built the barrows, believed to be Indo-Europeans, are the dolmens of Korea and Japan. Could the people who left the dolmens and barrows all of the way to China also have left an abundance of dolmens and barrows in Korea? To view the Korean dolmens, click here: http://myhome.shinbiro.com/~kbyon/dolmen/dolmen.htm

We know that the Etruscans reflected Greek mythological themes on their pottery and in their tombs and artifacts. They had a "Hellenic" period, circa. 350 B.C., but so did others trading with the Greeks during that period. The Scythians incorporated Greek myths and designs into their ornaments, for instance, in part with interest in trading the goods to Greeks, who would be looking for such designs. The Romans, who also had their own mythology, like the Etruscans and others, adopted Greek mythology to their art forms. The flow of culture seems to have been from the Greeks to other cultures, rather than the Etruscan culture, contemporaneous with the Greek, flowing into the Greek. If this is true, one might expect that the Etruscan language became infused with Greek words. However, Table 1 shows little commonality between the Greek and Etruscan languages. The bias of the Etruscan language, in fact, is towards the so-called Romance languages. This bias is significant, since it excludes a bias towards other languages, such as Greek, Persian or Sanskrit. Those who have claimed that Etruscan is "Slavic," or some other relationship, such as being of the Middle East, Persian, etc., or Sanskrit, may now repose in the knowledge from Table 1 that Etruscan is proto-Italic-Gaelic. Those who are of a "Romance" language may also feel confident that they have an ancestor language which preceeded the dominion of Latin. I did not include Portugues or Spanish, for instance, in Table 1, but I am confident that their relationship to Etruscan will be similar to the Latin, Italian and French entries.

Breaking down the Etruscan language through the scientific method

The first problem I had to deal with was the decipherment and translation of the language. As noted, the results produced other questions having to do with the placement of the Etruscan language in the Indo-European family of languages. Some of the questions had to do with the pre-Italian geographical origin of the language, which appears to be Anatolia; and this led to the question whether the Etruscans might have had Italic relatives in Anatolia or the Black Sea area. Medieval historians reported, as will be seen later, that Old Gaelic was similar to Latin. And the Gaelic groups have been found in the formative expansion of the Indo-Europeans in the Anatolian region and Black Sea area.

Deciphering and translating a language, has its responsibilities. One cannot just offer a translation without providing the facts to back up the translation. These facts involve establishment of the grammar, the phonetic and grammatical shifts and relationships to other members of the family to which it belongs, the reconciliation of the language with geographical and historical knowledge and, most importantly, the presentation of the new information in a scientific manner and how that information reconciles to known history. Translation of the scripts does, in fact, change history and the history books. As a minimum, a different presentation of the Etruscans can be explored. No longer are we dependent upon theories on pottery styles, burial practices, artifacts and a few "historical notations" by ancient writers following the Etruscan Age. We have the Etruscan texts which can testify of themselves.

Thus, I began my search: After ten years of work on the elusive Etruscan Scripts, in 1981 I published a book called, "Catalog of Etruscan Words." In the book I gathered all of the Etruscan scripts which were then extant and broke down the scripts into familiar words and phrases. Using a matrix I listed words which were common among the scripts, and, using those words, which were often with repetitive phrases, such as one would find in noun plus epithet structures, i.e.: in liturgical use or as in the Iliad, I isolated other words and phrases. Eventually I was able to compile a catalog of Etruscan words and how they were used in the various scripts. I published this catalog in 1981. This work expands that "decipherment." This is the completion of that process, where I have established a vocabulary, conjugation and declension patterns of the language and translations of the scripts. This work reconciles the longer scripts containing Etruscan characters.

The Etruscan language resembles Latin and has conjugation forms which are close to Spanish, French & Italian. For instance, the verb [amar – to love, like] past tense, is amaba in Spanish, amabat in Latin and in Etruscan it is amapa.The conjugation and declension patterns in Etruscan are abundant and consistent among the various texts. I am reconciling the Etruscan vocabulary of the scripts on this site: Zagreb Mummy, Tavola Cortonensis, Perugia Cippus, Cippus Perusinus, the two Pyrgi gold tablets and the Tavola Eugubine Script N, Q, R and G. The Zagreb Mummy script, being the longest text, is the key to establishing the grammatical rules of the Etruscan language. The position of the noun and its modifier (adjective), verb and adverb, agreement in number and gender – all these things have to be (and continue to be so) – consistent in all Etruscan texts. It is interesting, however, how the Zagreb Mummy text is a composition of verses, and with regard to that form does not necessarily require the standard western Indo-European sentence structure, with each sentence having the components of a subject, verb and object. For instance, when we say, "It is raining," (French "il pleut") we construct a subject which is redundant to the verbal expression of raining. Who is it that is raining? As I recall, the Hopi Indians have a verbal structure, not dependent upon placing a noun (subject) in the phrase. To express the same thought they would say, "raining," and this in Hopi would be a complete sentence. In any event, in translating the Etuscan language one must pay attention to the rules of western Indo-European grammar, and it is quite clear that the language in the Tavola Eugubine is the same language in the Zagreb Mummy text. The present work is focused on refining the Etruscan vocabulary and its relationship to other languages (see Table 1 below). The Etruscan Vocabulary, previously below Table 1 in this work, will not be updated, in as much as the data in Table 1 now incorporates a refined version of the Vocabulary. To review the old
Vocabulary, click here.

Like Latin, Etruscan does not use the article, "the," "a," and many prepositions, such as "of," i.e., as "the house of Cato" would be expressed as casa Cato.

Unless there is a bi-lingual inscription discovered we shall have to settle for a near reconstruction of the grammar. That is to say, there is nothing we have to compare the Etruscan grammar to except the so-called Romance languages which it resembles. In the comparison, which is evident in Table 1 of this work, we can see how a word in Etruscan may shift with regard to French, Italian & Latin, as well as English. Since this page is my worksheet, as it were, one can see the optional meanings in the languages which might relate to Etruscan words. Table 1 is a quick reference to seeing how words with the same meaning (cognates – words spelled similarly, with the same meaning) in French, English, Italian and Latin shift from one language to another. There may be a shift in the suffix, for instance, as in French, amar to Italian amare. Table 1 also shows shifts between those languages and other key Indo-European languages, such as Sanskrit, Avestan, Persian, Baltic, Serbo-Croation and Belarus and two representatives of Gaelic.

Background on the methodology

The Etruscan alphabet is the precursor of the Latin alphabet which we use today. There are some characters used in the scripts which share common characteristics with Greek letters and early Cypriot Scripts. I have translated those characters into the consonants and vowels noted in the tables at the bottom of this page.

Each line of the Etruscan scripts represented herein is assigned an alpha-numeric location. Where a word appears in the various scripts I indicate its location(s) in Table 1 (based upon my earlier recording via the Vocabulary & Index). The method used to develop the Vocabulary was by isolating repetitious words and phrases (Thus this site is called, "Etruscan Phrases"). It is fortunate that many of the scripts – being hierophantic in nature – contain considerable repetition. Locating the repetition of words is the key to deciphering all texts, even those with the modern secret codes now being employed. For to express a group of phrases a communicator will eventually reveal the grammatical structure of the language being communicated. Grammar involves rules, and the rules establish the scientific merit in deciding the value of a particular word. With this in mind, I collated words and phrases and issigned them alpha-numeric locaters. This collation became an Index of Phrases which can be accessed through the Vocabulary 2.html (but has served its purpose as a data collecting tool in the research and is now obsolete).

The Index of Phrases was used to develop the Vocabulary. The Index of Phrases served the purpose of isolating words and phrases and displaying grammatical patterns, such as one would see in the conjugation of a verb or declension of a noun or adjective. Once the grammatical patterns were extablished and the vocabulary constructed, the translations – which you see here – could take place. To read the translations as a group, with commentary, click here: Translations.html. The Translations.html will be updated as new data become available through modifications introduced via the Table 1 research. To learn more about the author, click here.

Translations (~6,000 words)

Translation: Schøyen Mirror, "Ikarius," Script MS, 6th Century B.C. [~26 words] This mirror is interesting since it contains many words in Indo-European Table 1 and the text can be seen to relate to the story written on the mirror. This is, thus, the first of the Etruscan "literature," that can be demonstrated, which we place in a category, "Illustrated Etruscan literature." Another, important script reflecting a coincidence between a scene and its script is the "Battle of the Amazons," reviewed above (1.31.06) and the Volterra Mirror (2.01.06).

The Piacenza Liver, Script PL, [~34 words] An Etruscan model of a sheep liver used for instruction in divination. This is the latest and one of the more exciting of the Etruscan Phrases translations. Most of the words in the text are repeated in other Etruscan Phrases texts, and thus, using Table 1 Vocabulary, this text was relatively easy to understand. The words / locaters of the liver have been added to Table 1. The liver is read from left to right. The right-hand side leads up through the "eternal gods" through the "arch of god" and to the "Net of Propitiation" which begins with "The Law of the Sheep-fold" and salvation / healing. Links to the correlating words and texts are provided in Script PL (5.11.06)

The Volterra mirror, Script AH, [~11 words] "Uni Suckling Hercules.html" containing heroes and a script common to the Divine_Mirror.html. Updated 2.01.06. The Volterra mirror is another script falling into the category, "Illustrated Etruscan literature," and thus we can expect the text to coincide with the illustration.

Translation: Chiusi Fibula, Script VF, [~6 words] Villanovan, 7th Century B.C., Louvre Museum. This fibula is interesting since it clarifies words in Indo-European Table 1 and Indo-European Table 2. (New 7.01.04)

Translation: Cippus Perusinus, 5th Century B.C., Script "J" [~56 words] (Updated 10.12.03)
Translation of the Chimera_Script, Script CA
[ 3 words] (7.17.04)

Translation of the Perugia Cippus, Script K. [~44 words] It contains a list of kings and queens and refers to their power and relationships. Much of the script seems to be a record of a Queen Sarina. Her bust is in the Louvre Museum. She was an extraordinarily beautiful woman, as can be seen from the bronze bust. The bronze has her name inscribed on its forehead. This script is written in the first person. I have updated the translation reflecting findings from the other scripts and reviewing a better copy of the script. It concludes as a record of a lawsuit involving the sheep of the great queen. (Updated 10.13.03).

Translation of the Mirror from Tuscania, Script TC , [10 words] that shows the divination of a liver for lord Tarquin (AUL TARCHONOS). "Fear Tarquins," (TARCHIE) it concludes. (05.08.06)

Translation of theMagliano Lead Disk, Script M. [~87 words] Probably the oldest of the texts dating from circa. 600 B.C. It is written in a spiral (labyrinth) much like the Phaestos Disk. It uses the TH more extensively than other scripts. This script, like the Tavola Cortonensis, is a military document, and it too invokes DioneMinerva and Tinia in the defense of its oration. (Updated 6.16.06). This script has been updated in correspondence with our Etruscan Glossary.

Translation of the two Lemnos stele, Script S [~60 words] (5.29.05)

This script apppears to be dedicated to a royal personage named Sivai. The translation is:
The scimitar I energetically defend, supposing by
the evil, forbidding seas
whether the shields of eternity;
to be torn in pieces; I sow I am born again Sivai
Your land he filled;
The talk of peace through; they join together to admire the reign (or he reigns) there
He orders the laws of the hearths of Asia he departs / dies;
to bring forth the prophetess of eternity I have;
the tufa (burial tomb) he watches;
The circle (tomb) he hangs on to / stands by; Sivai; the sword beside I {or to} venerate; the altars; the shaft; I have because;
of Sivai; eternity; whether its shields of the sea we go; eternity; to the burial place

Script AL
Prince Metelis
Script T
Prince Serelus
Script HA
Script HT
Script BS-7
Script BS-1
Translation of Miscellaneous Short Inscriptions, Scripts A, P, AB, AD, AE, AF, AG, AJ, AK, AL, TA, AN-1, AN-2, AN-3, AP, HA, AM, T (7.30.06)
[~226 words] The orator of Script AL is Prince Metelis who appears to be of the clan Veleres, a name appearing in many scripts, including the Zagreb Mummy. The text (still in work) indicates that he holds the chair of Turin.

Script HA is on the left leg of the haruspex (seer), saying, "Behold! He atoned for the faithful offspring." This also falls within the category of "Illustrated Etruscan literature," and we should expect the text to explain the image. Since it does not contain a personal name, we can presume it was not of any particular seer.

Script T – This stele is of Prince Serelus, which has been called the Avle Luske stele, a misnomer. His armor is like that described in the Iliad and the sword pointing up between his legs may indicate his power as a great warrior. Images of Mycenean swords have been found carved on stonehenge, among many places, thus indicating a tradition, perhaps indicating that he is under the protection of the god of War (Roman Mars; Greek, Ares). Part of the text is damaged but it appears to say, "To Prince Serelus a lamentation we sing; I write in love; in the least he comes from Achaea."

Translation of Miscellaneous Short Inscriptions.a, Scripts BS, AQ, LS, FT, NC, AR, HT [~90 words] (2.02.06) The Banquet scenes and Script HT, a tile identifying the precinct of Hermes, are shedding considerable light on the Etrusan beliefs. In Script For instance, Hermes plays an important role in the burial chambers, where he is the escort of the departed soul to the abode of the afterlife (gods). This makes sense since Hermes is identified as the messenger of the gods. If he brings messages from the gods or takes messages to the gods, it follows that he would be the one who carries the departed soul to the gods. A curious word, AL, ends the phrase of Script NT, but it is common to many scripts. I thought it was similar to Italian, al, "to the," but always recognized that Etruscan, as is true with Latin, does not use the article, "the," so "al" had to represent something else. It turns out, if my interpretation of Script NT is correct, "al" is Latin "alius," another and the word preceeding AL in Script NT is FETVS (Lat. "fetus-us," the bringing forth or hatching of young). Hermes is involved in the bringing forth of another birth, and we can see that the Etruscan view of life after death was very similar to the Egyptian and Judaic concepts, of being reborn.

Scripts BS-1 and BS-7 – In Banquet BS-1 there is an offering of an egg, and on the mirror where the goddess Uni is suckling Heracles a child-like angelic being (Epe?) is offering an egg. In this scene a person who appears to be the departed matron of the family is offering an egg to the departed. The same man appears in Script BS-1 in the same tomb and there he is offering a bowl (containing a mead-like drink?) to a younger woman, who appears to be his wife, who is also departed. These banquet scenes fall in the category of "Illustrated Etruscan literature" where the script should reflect the illustration. (

Translation of Miscellaneous Short Inscriptions.b. Scripts MA, VP, BT, LP, TB, OM [~170 words, "LP" largely unreadable] An interesting script is BT, which has nail holes on its right hand side, indicating it was posted against a wall, like the Pyrgi gold tablets, as opposed to the Tavola Cortonensis, a bronze plate
Script BT
"Laris Pulena" Script LP
designed to be hung by a lanyard. Script LP, "Laris Pulena," is a long inscription that I have tentatively translated. The image I have is hard to read and when I get a better copy I will be able to finish this translation. Most of the words in the text are common to the Etruscan Vocabulary, Table 1. The urn is in the Museo Archeologico, Tarquinia. The text refers to the "divine Tarquins."

Translation, Aph.html, of the inscription from Santa Marinella. This inscription is the waisline of what appears to be a female torso which was damaged in the area of the crotch. The goddess Aph is mentioned in this script and it appears that this was part of her torso. The Pyrgi scripts mention a controversy over the goddess Aph, and she is described in connection with a cow. The mother-goddess of Mesopotamia, Ishtar, Isis, the mother-goddess of Egypt and Ashtar, the mother-goddess of the Phonecians, are symbolized by the horns of a cow, signifying fertility and abundance. Ashtar is mentioned on the Punic gold tablet found with the Etruscan gold tablets, the three of which are called the Pyrgi Scripts (7.13.03).

Partial translation of the Capua Tile, Script CP [~126 words that can be read – script largely unreadable] which is so badly damaged only a portion of it can be made out at the moment. I need a better copy of the tile. It contains the name of the goddess Aph, a partial genealogy of the Etruscan gods which appear to have been born out of Aph, including the god Tini and an interesting reference to HIPA RIV, the "river horse" which may relate to the Egyptian goddess of fertility which had the body of a hippopotamus with human breasts and features of other animals. Places and boundaries, providing somewhat of a geography lesson from Etruscan times, are mentioned, including rivers relating to the people of Pisa and the Oscans. This is so far the most interesting of the Etruscan scripts. The Aph.html relates to the fertility goddess and is written on the waistline of a statue of a woman. The shape of that disfigured fragment appears to reflect the ancient fertility goddess: wide hips, pronounced vulva, etc. It would be interesting to find a complete image of that Etruscan goddess, since there was a controversy over her according to the Pyrgi gold tablets (10.06.01).

The story of Helen of Troy on an Etruscan Mirror, Divine_Mirror.html. [~15 words/names] This mirror has the names of the characters in the story and is an excellent illustration of the Etruscan ability to tell an entire story through graphic images. The story is told from the Etruscan point of view, with a Lydian bias, as it were. It is important because it defines the gods used in the mirror in the context of the story of the Iliad. We can see that the consort of Tinia (Zeus) is Ralna (Nemesis). The suffix "ia" in Tinia, and "ie" in Elenei, led to the identification of the suffixes as determinants for proper names (genitive case?), as in the case of Atia (Hades) and Phersipnei (Persephone), seen in the judgment scene of the tomb of Orcus. Also on this page is a mirror from Tarquinia in the possession of Oberlin College that is of the Judgment of Paris, containing the names, MINRFA (Minerva), Uni, Turan and a variant spelling of Alexandar; i.e, on DM-6, ELCHINTRE and OB-4, ELACHSNTRE..

Translation: The Etruscans' view of their faith--after death--Etruscan_Faith.html
Translation: The arm of a bronze statue in the Vatican Museum. The forearm is missing, leaving a fragment on the upper arm. It is believed that the statue is of the Etruscan god Tages (whose name is mentioned in the scripts). To view the statue click on Tages (sorry the link is dead; if I can find the image I will restore it).
Top line: PAS FENVS A: "Peace we bring to"
Second line: IRIS TeCFISNeS V: (L. viso, 'to see after'; Tego, ' to bury/shield/protect'; IRIS, a female messenger of the gods; Fr. iras, 'you shall go'); thus: "you shall go to protect. They look/see after Oh!"
Third line: Ce FEDeR FER (L. veter, 'to forbid'; L. vere, adv. 'truly, really'; thus: "whereby to truly forbid."
Fourth line: _ _ _ IN
Translation of sheet 1 of the Pyrgi Gold Tablets, Script Au. [~72 words] These gold tablets were found in the sanctuary of Pyrgi. This is an oration during the Festival of Hera with regard to a controversy (polemic) involving the goddess Aph. The Etruscan tablets are a dedication to Uni, the Roman Juno, and affirms her seat as the singular goddes of the site. She is addressed in the two tablets both as Iuno and Uni. Juno is the mother and fertility goddess of the Romans and the occasion of the dedication is on the feast called Herarum (L. Heraea-orum), where the text refers to being nourished by the supreme goddess. The oration calls Uni and Janus, the god of wisdom, to the rock together before the Italian magistrates' seats to resolve a controversy (polemic). The beginning of the oration acknowledges the god Janus. Janus was the doorkeeper of heaven in Roman mythology and the god of beginnings and endings. He was originally a supreme diety, like Zeus and Jupiter, and was the mediator of prayers and petitions to the to the other gods. His blessng was asked at the beginning of every day, month and year. January was named after him. He also presided over the sowing of crops, and Roman commanders departed through the doors of his temple, which were closed only in times of peace. He was represented in art with two faces, looking in opposite directions, symbolizing his knowledge of the past and future.

The Etruscans believed in divination, knowing the future, and one of the forms of divination involved thunder. After Janus is mentioned the oration says, "I am called your grace." Then the text reminds the crowd that they love Uni, The Etruscan mother goddess of fertility, and she summons you to perform the polemic of Aph. The closing words on sheet 2 identify the rite as a fertility rite, also involving a cow, which was the symbol of Ishtar, and in this text common to the goddess Aph, and again the rite is described as a polemic. The third sheet is in Punic and refers to the goddess Ishtar. Updated
Translation of sheet 2 of the Pyrgi Gold Tablets, Script Au, (11.17.03). [~105 words] This page carries the second page of the Pyrgi script. Also on the page is a third gold tablet which is in Phoenician. Its translation by Sabatino Moscati is:

To [our] Lady Ishtar. This is the holy place // which was made and donated // by TBRY WLNSH [= The faries
Velianas] who reigns on // Caere [or: on the Caerites], during the month of the sacrifice // to the Sun, as a gift
in the temple. He b//uilt an aedicula [?] because Ishtar gave in his hand [or: raised him with her hand] // to
reign for three years in the m//onth of KRR [=Kerer], in the day of the burying // of the divinity. And the years
of the statue of the divinity // in his temple [might be ? are ?] as many years as these stars.

The Etruscan scripts largely coincide with the Phoenician. There are some corrections, however. Velianas is Fel Ianus (the great Janus).
Fel is a term meaning "great" used frequently in the Etruscan scripts on this site. The name Caere is read as "heart" in the context of getting to the heart or kernel of the matter which concludes acknowledging the decline, old age, of the goddess Aph.

Translation of the Tavola Cortonensis, Script TC, [~284 words] the latest find of an Etruscan script. This is a letter of demand which appears to relate to passage money and is addresssed to a commander of the Etruscans. Rasna, the name of the Etruscans, is mentioned twice in the text. The sender appears to be of the Latins. The text is amazingly consistent with the body of the other Etruscan texts and from it I have acquired more vocabulary. It seems to involve a conflict over passage through a domain that also has a complaint regarding daughters-in-law (nuora), thus suggesting a family alliance that has been broken. A short introductory text is on one side and on the reverse one finds the rest of the message. Shades of French and Italian are strong in this text. I am revisiting the text for the fourth time, reconciling it to the other scripts. (11.21.05).

Translation of the Zagreb Mummy, Script Z, [~1900 words – many unreadable] a long script on mummy wrappings which is a prayer. The prayer is concerned about the day of wrath (an appeal to the gods to mitigate it). An illustration of this judgement and the fear of it is found in an illustration of Charon, the Ferryman of the Underworld in the Miscellaneous_Scripts.html . Images of Tuchulcha, a demonic being which has a beaked nose and pointed ears, who brandishes three snakes, seem to echo in the considerable fear of wrath in the script, though Tuchulcha is not mentioned thus far. The Chimaera is mentioned several times, however. The script is very grim, with the focus being escaping from wrath, the gods of wrath and the day of wrath. Most of the gods and goddesses mentioned are Greek names with the exception of Tini and Uni. The Underworld is a very dark world where all of the gods possess wrath/judgment which must be avoided. In fact escaping the darkness is a theme and the mummy wrapping, being joined, is viewed as a means of escaping the underworld. Some of the instructions to the mummy include the fact that it spues out the resin which covers it and it will stand up rigid. It also spues out food. There is a trinity of gods involved in the passage of the soul. Also the process of mummification is described, and it appears that the panels were applied in sets of three. In the first panels on the body is an instruction of wetting the head, draining the body and pulling out the entrails. In both the top and bottom fragments and sheets it appears that goat's serum / blood is used in the binding process. The text refers to the leg of a goat.
The soul has a "double" into which the departed transforms, similar to the "ka" in the Egyptian religion. The passages are verse-like and often do not contain complete sentences, just phrases. There is much repetition of ephitets mixed together from one verse to another. The script is very close to Latin. Towards the end of the script, at Z1334, she is referred to as the grand-daughter of king Lais. Laius is the name of the father of Oedipus Rex. If this section of the text the writer refers to Troy and the Trojans.
The name of the person of the mummy seems to be of a place or name, Veleri. The word declines: Veler, Velere, Veleres, Veleri. It also appears in script AL. However CN is an often repeated abbreviation referring to the mummy and there appears to be other names which have been assigned to the deceased, such as Seramus. CN is an abbreviation in Latin for the Roman praenomen Gnaeus-i. So CN may be the daughter of a king Gnaeus.
Throughout the text there is reference to the king, and it may be from indications in the "instruction" panels that the fabric was composed for mummification of the kings, one of whom was king Lais. It is an interesting script and needs more refinement with regard to the decipherment. Other scripts will no doubt purge some of the errors or doubtful interpretations--there are not many.
Each panel of the wrapping carries a set order of lines (usually six) and the cadence tends to weigh towards ten words per line. There appear to be 40 panels and ten fragments. The punctuation marks in this script force the verses to read like poetry. Many verses appearing on one line in a panel (the script refers to the panels as wrappings) will appear spread across two or three panels. Also, as in poetry it the scribes would carry a phrase over and over while substituting one or two words or shifting their position. There are some clumsy parts of the script--mostly having to do with the interpretation of certain prepositions and conjunctions, such as: an, al, si, sin and chis.
Most of the scripts have been reconciled to the Zagreb Mummy Script, and I am now making a second pass in reconciling the Tavola Eububine scripts.
For some disclosure on the Zagreb Mummy Wrapping from the point of view of the Zagreb Museum click here (

A second pass in the translation of the Tavola Eugubine Script N [~755 words] is complete. A general note on the Tavola Eugubine should be listed here. The vocabulary is consistent with the vocabulary used in the other Etruscan scripts on this website. To translate an entire corpus of scripts, using common grammatical rules and a consistent vocabulary, without a "Rosetta Stone" is a big challenge in itself. But one can make a fair translation, knowing that all languages have rules of grammar and following the rules there is the liklihood of repetition. These scripts, together with the Zagreb Mummy script, fortunately contain a lot of repitition. And they use the same grammar/vocabulary; and both are consistent with other scripts. Where you see an alpha-numeric locater for a word, which points to several different Etruscan scripts, know that the same word works well in the same context in the translations where it appears. The Tavola is thus Etruscan. My vocabulary, built from the various scripts, defines what Etruscan is. It is old, rich in inflections, like Latin and Greek. It is like Latin but recalls shades of Italian and French. These are the closest languages to which Etruscan is related.
The text is a blessing where the Lord Titus is standing on the battlements addressing the people in detail, from beginning to end. He is seen at the end of the script pouring water in the blessing. The blessing involves a vision through which the lord addresses certain gods/goddesses to keep away. The narrative focuses on what appears to be temple virgins (sisters). The phrases of the formulas are interchanged and juxtaposed, thus creating a lot of repetition.
The narrative acknowledges that there is a truce/covenant which provides for eternal life. I die, we die but the skin is restored. The close of the narrative acknowledges that the people being addressed are of the line of the god Tages who in the end is called the hairy Pesnimus. (

Translation of the Tavola Eugubine Script Q [~920 words] – my second pass through the script, which is complete. Script "Q" is a funeral oration and like Script N interchanges repeated formulas which contain the names of gods who were on the side of Troy during the Trojan war. The ephitets towards the end of the text focus on Eos (the goddess of dawn; also the dawn) and Apollo who in a more ancient form was linked to the sun god, Helios. Escaping the sometimes impish Eros, god of love, is mentioned; Venus, the goddess of love, Jupiter and others are placed in the context of salvation, returning to the day. The repetition of "blessed" and many synonyms used for death, wasting away, etc. demonstrate their preoccupation with it. This text also addresses the demon Tuchulcha, not by name, but as TRE 8IPER, Tre Viper. He as well as a host of gods and goddesses are addressed in the context of being chased away, using a verb (L. abeo) "be off with you." The formulas recount how the people in the crowd are brothers of Atigerius the patriarch of the gens of Cato. The oration seems to be addressed to a son of Cato named Cato. I encourage you to read Script Q since it shows the way the Etruscans expressed themselves during a funeral liturgy, recalling the repitition we have all seen in most liturgical documents. Script IV focuses on little warnings to the temple servants and refers to the moistening of the fields and the cultivation of the fields."Since I cultivate she moistens," is an often repeated verse. I pine for her to cultivate, to moisten, to love." It then has repeated verses on prophesying, referring to the goddess Eph of the tower and of the country (10.13.03).

Translation of the Tavola Eugubine Script R. [~671 words] This is a blessing of the people through supplication of the gods. It is a feast of lights. The blessing refers to a pyre and various images, linking the light of the pyre and the sprinkling of water in the names of specific gods and godesses. The orator calls out/summons Apollo, Phabia, the goddess of the moon, Lune (Diana), Phobea, etc. in addressing the castle which is apparently located in Pisa. The ritual connects an ancient form of Apollo (Phoebus) with Helios, the sun, and in the middle of the text the orator contrasts a goddess of the earth, Eph, with the moon and the sun. The fire and the sun is that which gives birth to nature, makes the moon go away, and that which devours what it created. Tavola II para. 2 appears to be a letter, addressed to the descendents of Atigerius in Achaia; it also addresses the same in Gordos, and the port of Pyrae. It complains about the sacrifice of mares without blemish, endorsing the sacrifice of lambs. It is a celebration of light which is illuminated by Script "G" which repeats some phrases (R164; R204) in script "R." And these repititions are connected with the aegis of Jupiter/Zeus which is the source of lightning. The Etruscans interpreted lightning bolts. (10.13.03).

Translation of the Tavola Eugubine Script G. [~45 words] A short text which is written by another hand which renders the "T" as a "Y". The hand that wrote Script "N" and "Q" is not the same as the one that wrote script "R," and "G" is completely different. See comment on Script "R," for both scripts cover a festival of "lights" which refers to a three-fold supremacy or monarchy: that of three planes. Three are noted: the goddess Eph, who is of the earth; Jupiter, the sky-god; and Lune, the goddess of the moon. The pyres appear to be related to the worship of Eph and also Pha and symbolic of the light of the sun and the moon; and Jupiter/Tini/Zeus rule over all through their shield (aegis) of lightning bolts.(10.13.03)

Translation of the Novilara Tablet, Script L . [~76 words] It was found near Pesaro and dates around the 5th to 4th century B. C. This script uses characters common to the Osco-Umbrian scripts and apears to be a plea from a man's sons, explaining why they were abandoning their fort(10.13.03).

Translation of the Siculian Tablet, Script F. [~ 29 words] It is a short letter from a grandson, Brutus, to his grandfather dating around the 5th century B.C (10.13.03)

Translation of Lydian, showing its relationship to the Etruscan language (new 6.26.06).

Links – You may wish to open a link as you read this work
Good gallery of Etruscan tomb photos: http://bstorage.com/photo/Italy/Tarquinia
Great link to Etruscan tombs: http://www.mysteriousetruscans.com/tombs.html
Good educational site on tombs & artificats by Oklahoma University: http://www.ou.edu/class/ahi4163/files/main.html
Museum of Tarquinia; great tomb photos:
Tour European megalithis, dolments, barrows and alignments; great place to start: http://www.stonepages.com
Tour Black Sea dolmens (the coast from Novorossiysk to Sochi). Note the keyhole in the entrance slab and forcourts – similar to Welsh and Apulian dolmens. http://www.admiral.ru/hp/wacfund/
Another tour of the Black Sea dolmens with lots of photos & map. http://megalith.ru/centers/indexen.shtml
Tour the area, tumuli and menhirs of the Russian steppes:
Tour Korean dolmens: http://myhome.shinbiro.com/~kbyon/dolmen/dolmen.htm
Th e Roman Empire and subsequent dynasties from 27 B.C. to 1945. Includes maps, names and dates of dynasties, etc. http://www.friesian.com/romania.htm#prince
Article with great photos on Scythian leather goods
The Alekseev Manuscript, edited by Geraldine Reinhart-Waller:
anthropology of kurgan cultures in Russia and Siberia. Late Bronze Age mounds contain burials in hollowed logs similar to those of Celts in Britain and the Tocharians in Siberia. http://www.drummingnet.com/alekseev/
Map of the Megaliths in the British Isles: http://www.megalith.ukf.net/bigmap.htm;
Archeology of Hissarlik (Troy): http://www.varchive.org/nldag/archiss.htm;
Linguist List.org – largest online linguistic resource
Maps of Europe & the World in the 14th century (before Columbus) in the Bibliotèque National, Paris: http://www.bnf.fr/enluminures/texte/manuscrit/aman6.htm;
Interesting site on the Gobustan petroglyphs, caves and ~40 tumuli, near the Iron Gates on the Caspian Sea, showing influence from Europe and India: http://www.hominids.com/donsmaps/gobustan.html
Vocabulary on Sanskrit, the ancient language of India http://www.alkhemy.com/sanskrit/dict/
Ancient Venetic Scripts, written in a protoSlavic language? http://www.thezaurus.com/sloveniana/venetic_script1.htm
Ancient maps of the Roman Empire Here you can see a town in Liguria which is Pompeia, the location of Spina, etc.
Interesting map of the Eastern Roman Empire, showing Albania north of Armenia (northern slope of the Caucaus Mountains): http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/eastern_roman_empire.jpgHistorical maps of Troy: where the Etruscan Odyssey began: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/shepherd/troy_vicinity.jpUniversity of Texas Perry-Castañeda library of maps: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/index.html
A site on the Osco-Umbrian scripts by David Monaco which are similar to the Etruscan scripts: http://space.tin.it/io/davmonac/sanniti/smlin.htm
Webcam atop the cupola of the S. Maria del Fiore Cathedral in Florence, Italyhttp://www.vps.it/cupolalive/
Great site on the Proto-Indo-European (PIE languageshttp://www.bartleby.com/61/8.htm
Indo-European languages and more-counting to ten by Zompist: http://www.zompist.com/euro.htm#i
Indo-European languages, by Wikipedi http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-European_language

Visitors. I am overwhelmed by the amount of response to this site and thank you for visiting what I believed over the years to be an esoteric work.


(1) Illiad, translated by W. H. D. Rouse, A Mentor book, 1938, pp. 265 ff. All quotes on the Illiad are from the Rouse translation.
(2) Praying to the North Wind and the West Wind. Compare the importance of the Wind gods in the ceremony to their function in the Rig Veda, quoted in Banquet of the Gods.
(3) Following this Achilles began the games, consisting of chariot races, boxing and wrestling matches, spear throwing, throwing a lump of iron, and other feats.
(4) An interesting comment by the Roman historian Suetonius (70 A.D. - 130 or 140 A.D) refers to an Etruscan word. About 100 days before Augustus Caesar's death a bolt of lightning struck a statue of Caesar near the Campus Martius. A bronze plaque on the statue contained the word, Caesar, and the bolt melted the "C" in his name, leaving the letters, aesar. The "flash of lightning ..was interpreted to mean that he would live only a hundred days from that time, the number indicated by the letter C, and that he would be numbered with the gods, since aesar (that is, the part of the name Caesar which was left) is the word for god in the Etruscan tongue." [Lives of the Caesars, Suetonius, "The Diefied Augustus," XCVII]. There is one Etruscan word, AIS, that comes near to "aesar," and it appears in the Zagreb Mummy Script. In most instances it appears as a single word, AIS, and in a compound, AIS AN. At the end of the script, Z1861, the contruction, AIS ERAS appears. I translated AIS as "bronze object" and its use was in the context of worship, i.e., Z1861 "they shall turn / change; to the bronze you wander; to Zeus of the serene trellis you assemble."


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Indo-European Table 2

Launched 7.26.98

Updated: 9.6.98; 9.20.98; 11.8.98; 11.28.98; 12.12.98; 1.17.99; 3.7.99; 3.27.99 (pg. 4); 5.31.99; 7.3.99; 7.18.99; 7.31.99; 8.22.99; 8.29.99; 9.6.99; 9.11.99; 10.3.99; 10.17.99; 11.14.99;11.21.99; 11.28.99; 12.2.99' 12.13.99; 12.25.99; 3.5.2000; 5.27.2000; 7.4.2000; 6.30.02;7.06.02; 7.28.02; 8.04.02; 8.11.02; 8.25.02; 9.15.02; 9.22.02; 9.29.02; 10.13.02; 10.25.02; 11.08.02;12.02.02; 12.08.02; 12.22.02; 12.28.03; 1.01.03; 1.12.03; 2.02.03; 2.09.03; 2.16.03; 2.22.03; 3.02.03; 3.16.03; 4.05.03; 4.13.03; 5.04.03; 5.11.03; 5.18.03; 5.26.03; 6.01.03; 6.08.03; 6.22.03; 6.29.03; 7.13.03; 7.20.03; 8.31.03; 9.07.03; 9.14.03; 9.21.03; 9.28.03; 10.13.03; 10.26.03; 11.11.03; 11.17.03, 11.19.03; 11.23.03; 11.27.03; 12.04.03; 12.07.03; 12.11.03; 12.14.03; 12.22.03; 12.28.03; 1.04.04; 1.11.04; 1.17.04; 1.26.04; 2.01.04; 2.08.04; 2.17.04; 2.21.04; 2.29.04; 3.02.04; 3.20.04; 3.25.04; 4.07.04, 4.22.04; 4.25.04; 5.14.04; 5.16.04; 5.22.04; 6.21.04; 7.01.04; 7.09.04; 7.11.04; 7.12.04; 7.14.04; 7.17.04; 8.01.04; 8.04.04; 8.17.04; 8.26.04; 8.27.04; 9.24.04; 10.07.04; 11.21.04; 1.29.05; 2.23.05; 4.17.05; 5.02.05; 5.19.05; 5.30.05; 7.22.05; 9.04.05; 11.14.05; 11.17.05; 11.21.05; 11.22.05; 1.31.06; 2.01.06; 2.02.06; 4.10.06; 5.08.06; 5.09.06; 5.11.06; 6.04.06; 7.16.06; 7.25.06; 7.30.06; 8.15.06

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Copyright © 1981-2006 Mel Copeland. All rights reserved. Use of the information on this page is expressly forbidden for purposes of publication in any media without the prior written consent of the author.